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Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 51(1); 2021 > Article
/home/virtual/kjpt/journal//../xmls/kjpt-51-1-33.xml BUM, YIM, PARK, BAKALIN, CHOI, RYU, and HYUN: Bryophyte flora of Gayasan Mountain National Park in Korea


We investigated the bryophyte flora of the Gayasan Mountain National Park in Korea by conducting 18 field surveys in from April of 2009 to November of 2016 at various sites on the mountains. During the surveys, we discovered 204 taxa comprising 57 families, 106 genera, 199 species, 2 subspecies, and 3 varieties. Among these, 145 species were reported as new to the flora of Gayasan Mountain. A checklist based on a study of 903 specimens is provided. The most notable species recorded during the surveys were the rare bryophytes Hattoria yakushimensis (Horik.) R. M. Schust., Nipponolejeunea pilifera (Steph.) S. Hatt., Drepanolejeunea angustifolia (Mitt.) Grolle, Lejeuena otiana S. Hatt., Cylindrocolea recurvifolia (Steph.) Inoue and Pogonatum contortum (Menzies ex Brid.) Lesq.

The first of bryophytes on Gayasan Mountains was published by Kashimura (1939) who identified two species, Andreaea rupestris var. fauriei (Besch.) Takaki. and Rhizomnium punctatum (Hedw.) T. J. Kop. collected on 24 September 1938. Since that time, the bryophyte flora of the Gayasan Mountain has been surveyed and also included in inventories of mosses and liverworts of the Korean Peninsula published on 20 species by Hong (1966) and 12 species Choe (1980). However, only 38 taxa were reported in these and other old studies, and more recently, Song and Yamada (2009) have reported on 38 taxa of liverworts. In the present study, we conducted the first comprehensive survey of bryophyte species distributed in the Gayasan Mountain National Park, with the aim of providing basic data that will contribute to establishing a conservation plan for the bryophyte flora of this parks.
Gayasan Mountain, designated Korea’s 9th national park in Korea in 1972, covers a total area of 77 km2, and borders the Hapcheon-gun and Geochang-gun of Gyeongsangnam-do and Seongju-gun of Gyeongsangbuk-do. The mountain lies between latitudes and longitudes 35°44′56″–35°51′19″N and 128°02′42″–128°11′10″E, the lowland area of which has a mean annual temperature of 13.4°C and precipitation of 1,276 mm per year (Korea Meteorological Administration, 2019). The highest ridges of the mountain are Sangwangbong (1,430 meters above sea level [m a.s.l.], the main peak), Chilbulbong (1,433 m a.s.l.), and Dongseongbong (1,227 m a.s.l.). The Gayasan Mountain valley’s area (Hongnyudong and Baegundong valleys) comprises mainly granite and is noted for its numerous historical and scenic sites, including the Haeinsa Temple and Palmandaejanggyeong (Buddhist Scriptures) (Choi and Do, 2016). The geology of Gayasan Mountain is mainly composed of Precambrian biotite gneiss, semi-phalangeal gneiss, Ileal rock, and Haeinsa granite formed during the Cretaceous period (Lee et al., 2016). In addition, approximately 85.2% of the total area of Gayasan Mountain National Park lies at elevations higher than 600 m a.s.l., whereas 10.3% of the area exceeds 1,000 m a.s.l, and is characterized by a mixture of plants with distribution ranges in the southern and central regions of the Korean Peninsula (Myeong et al., 2016). The ridgeline area is also rich in rocky outcrops and there are occasional area of gravelly barren fields on the steep slopes.

Materials and Methods

Field surveys

Our collections were carried out in habitats with a high diversity of bryophytes, such as wet habitats near stream beds, more or less dry rocks, bark of forest trees, and exposed stony fields and shaded cliffs near some mountain tops (Figs. 1, 2). We conducted a total of 18 field surveys from April 2009 to November 2016 at various sites in the park (Table 1).
All specimens were collected in newspaper or acid-free paper, and collection date, geographical coordinates, field herbarium numbers, collector names, preliminary species name, substrates, and habitats were recorded in the field. The collected materials were air-dried in the laboratory, and some species were cultivated in the greenhouse. All specimens were deposited in the Jeonbuk National University Herbarium (JNU) and National Institute of Biological Resources Herbarium (KB).

Latitude and longitudinal fractional composition

The treatment of latitudinal and longitudinal types basically follows to Konstantinova (2000) and Bakalin (2010). The distribution of each species was identified in a three-dimensional grid, from the Arctic to Tropical, from East Asian to Circumpolar, and its tendency to be distributed in mountainous areas. Nine latitudinal types of elements and eleven longitudinal types of habitat (area types) were identified to classify the distribution species. For the analysis of the distribution characteristics of bryophytes, their world distribution was obtained from Noguchi (1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1994), Gao et al. (1999, 2003), Lawton (1999), Li et al. (2001, 2007), Wu et al. (2002, 2005, 2011), Hu et al. (2008), and Korean distribution was obtained from Choe (1980), Kim and Hwang (1991), Kim (1991), and Bakalin (2010), Park (2020).

Number of bryophyte taxa and liverwort index

The liverwort index, which is based on the character that liverworts and hornworts tend to prefer more humid conditions than mosses do, was calculated as follows (Nakanishi, 2001):

Results and Discussion

Bryophyte flora

On the basis of an inspection of 903 herbarium specimens, we found that the bryophyte flora of the Gayasan Mountain includes 204 taxa belonging to 57 families, 106 genera, 199 species, 2 subspecies, and 3 varieties (Table 2). Among these, there were 115 taxa of Bryophyta (33 families, 67 genera, 111 species, 2 subspecies, and 2 varieties) and 89 taxa of Marchantiophyta (24 families, 39 genera, 88 species, and 1 variety). This is equivalent to 18.1% of the 1,121 taxa (346 liverworts and 775 mosses) recorded on the Korean Peninsula (Kim et al., 2020). Among the species identified, 145 taxa are newly recorded in the Gayasan Mountain (Appendix 1).

Comparison of bryophyte species richness and liverwort indices

Compared with recently studied bryophyte flora [Taebaeksan Mountain (Bum et al., 2020), Deogyusan Mountain (Yoon et al., 2011; Choi et al., 2013), Hallasan Mountain (Yim, 2012), and Sobaeksan Mountain (Choi et al., 2016)], Gayasan Mountain is characterized the lowest number of species (204 species), although the second highest number of taxa (2.67) on an area basis. The comparatively small number of species can be ascribed to the fact that although the Gayasan Mountain includes a variety of habitats, including different parent rocks (Precambrian biotite gneiss, semi-phalangeal gneiss, Ileal rock, and Cretaceous Haeinsa granite), some coniferous forests near the peaks, and small and large valleys (the Hongryudong and Baegundong valleys), the area cover covered in relatively small. Furthermore, according to the liverwort index, which indicates the degree of humidity in a surveyed area, Gayasan Mountain (43.6%) was found to be the wettest among the aforementioned areas (Sobaeksan Mountain 41.9%, Deogyusan Mountain 40.8%, and Taebaeksan Mountain 39.0%) (Table 3).

The latitudinal and longitudinal distribution of floristic elements among bryophytes of the Gayasan Mountain

Analysis of floristic elements based on latitude (Table 4) revealed that 54 taxa (26.5%) are boreal temperate, 45 (22.1%) temperate, 39 (19.1%) temperate–subtropical, 20 (9.8%) multizonal, 14 (6.9%) subtropical, 11 (5.4%) subtropical–tropical, 9 (4.4%) boreal, 8 (3.9%) arctic–boreal, and 4 (1.9%) arctic species. Compared with the latitudinal distribution characteristics of the Korean Peninsula bryophyte flora, the bryophyte flora of the Gayasan Mountain is characterized by temperate–subtropical (+6.5%) and temperate (+1.4%) taxa, and the lowest numbers of boreal temperate taxa (−2.1%) and subtropical (−1.8%), boreal (−1.6%), arctic-boreal (−1.4%), subtropical-tropical (−0.5%), arctic (−0.4%), and multizonal (−0.1%) species. It is assumed that these distribution patterns are attributable to the geographical location of the Gayasan Mountain, as well as increases in the numbers of temperate–subtropical and temperate plants in the lower regions of the valleys within the Gayasan Mountain range.
Analysis of the floristic elements based on longitude (Table 5) indicated that 84 taxa (41.2%) are of Eastern Asian distribution, 48 (23.5%) circumpolar, 24 (11.8%) multi-areal, 9 (4.4) Eastern Asia–American, 7 (3.4%) Asia–American, 4 (1.2) Asia–Europe and Amphipacific, and 3 (1.5%) Amphioceanic, with a further single species (0.5%) showing a disjunctive distribution. Compared with the longitudinal distribution characteristics of the Korean Peninsula bryophyte flora, that of the Gayasan Mountain is characterized by Eastern Asian and Asia–American (+1.9%), Asia–European (+1.4%), Amphipacific (+0.8), Eastern Asia–American (+0.7), and Asian mult-iareal (+0.6) taxa, with the lowest numbers of Circumpolar taxa (−5.3%), and disjunctive (−1.6%), Amphioceanic (−0.7%), and Southeast Asian (−0.1%) species. These findings thus clearly indicate that the flora of the Gayasan Mountain region of the Korean Peninsula is of an Eastern Asian type (Takhtajan, 1986).

Comparisons with previous studies on the bryophyte flora of the Gayasan Mountain

The Gayasan Mountain were included in the areas investigated as part of an inventory of mosses distributed in the Korean Peninsula conducted by Kashimura (1939, 1940), who published a checklist on Korean mosses, which included 15 taxa (Andreaea rupestris var. fauriei, Pogonatum inflexum, Bryoxiphium norvegicum subsp. japonicum, Bryum argenteum, Plagiomnium acutum, Rhizomnium punctatum, Hedwigia ciliata, Boulaya mittenii, Myuroclada maximowiczii, Meteorium buchananii subsp. helminthocladulum, Rhytidium rugosum, Entodon flavescens, Homalia trichomanoides, Eumyurium sinicum, Anomodon rugelii) recorded in the Gayasan Mountain. Subsequently, Choe (1980) published a manual on Korean Bryophytes, which included 12 taxa (Andreaea rupestris var. fauriei, Hedwigia ciliata, Eumyurium sinicum, Anomodon giraldii, Anomodon rugelii, Boulaya mittenii, Trichocoleopsis sacculata, Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia, Plagiochila hakkodensis, Cephaloziella spinicaulis, Frullania diversitexta, Frullania inflata) recorded in the Gayasan Mountain, whereas Hong (1966) reported 20 taxa on Gayasan Mountain as part of an inventory of the liverworts of the Korean Peninsula. The first of the surveys described herein conducted by Song and Yamada (2009) focused on liverworts, during which 38 taxa were recorded, two (Frullania aoshimensis and Radula oyamensis) of which were recorded from the Korean Peninsula for the first time. A further analysis of records in the previous literature raised the total number of taxa to 58, and on the basis of subsequent literature and survey studies, the total number of taxa currently stands at 204 (115 mosses and 89 liverworts).

Notable species

The most noteworthy species identified during the course of surveying are Hattoria yakushimensis (Horik.) R. M. Schust., Nipponolejeunea pilifera (Steph.) S. Hatt., Drepanolejeunea angustifolia (Mitt.) Grolle, and Lejeunea otiana S. Hatt. which are rarely found in Korea, as well as Cylindrocolea recurvifolia (Steph.) Inoue, the population size of which on Gayasan Mountain is the largest among those recorded to date on Korean Mountains. Additionally, a further notable species is Pogonatum contortum (Menzies ex Brid.) Lesq., a rare bryophyte that grow in high-altitude areas (in excess of 1,000 m) (Fig. 3).
Hattoria yakushimensis was previously reported near the Sangwangbong Peak of Gayasan Mountain as a hitherto unrecorded species in Korea (Choi et al., 2011). This species is endemic to East Asia with a narrow distribution range (Japan and China) and is listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as a vulnerable (VU) species. In the present study, we also found H. yakushimensis on a cliff near the peak at an elevation of 1,313–1,350 m, where it grows with Drepanolejeunea angustifolia, Plectocolea erecta, and Marsupella tubulosa.
Nipponolejeunea pilifera, which is characterized by long cilia along the leaf dorsal lobe margin, is sparsely distributed in Japan, China, and the southernmost Russian Far East. In Korea, it has previously been recorded in Deogyusan Mountain and Jirisan Mountain (Choi et al., unpubl. data). In the present study, we found it on the edge of Abies koreana E. H. Wilson forest near the northern face between the peaks Sangwangbong and Chilbulbong. This species grows with Frullania appendiculata, Frullania usamienesis, and Bazzania denudata.
Drepanolejeunea angustifolia is mainly distributed in subtropical and tropical regions (Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, The Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam) (Zhu and So, 2001). This bryophyte was previously reported near the Sangwangbong peak of Gayasan Mountain as an unrecorded species in Korea and has more recently been found in Jirisan Mountain, Hallasan Mountain, and Sobaeksan Mountain (Choi et al., 2012; Choi et al., unpubl. data). It is characterized by bifid underleaves, curved entire leaf margins, and 1 to 2 ocelli in the dorsal leaf lobe base, and found on shaded wet cliffs covering thin soil, along with Plectocolea erecta, Marsupella tubulosa, and Hattoria yakushimensis.
Lejeunea otiana has previously been collected in small caves near the Hongryudong Valley of Gayasan Mountain, at the time of which it was an unrecorded species in Korea (Choi et al., 2012). This species is distributed in Japan and the Korean islands of Jejudo and Gageodo (Choi et al., unpubl. data). In the present study, we also found specimens in a small cave in the same area. This species grows on shaded wet cliffs along with Acanthocoleus yoshinaganus, Conocephalum salebrosum, and Conocephalum japonicum.
Cylindrocolea recurvifolia is distributed in Eastern Asian temperate regions (Japan and China), southward spreading to Indochina, and in Korea has previously been recorded in the Seolaksan, Gyeryongsan, Naejangsan, Naebyeonsan, Duryunsan, and Weolchulsan mountains and the islands of Oerarodo and Jejudo, However, the patches found near the Hongryudong Valley in the present study are, of the largest size of our knowledge, the largest that have been recorded to date. We accordingly believe that it is necessary to promote, protect, and appropriately manage the Hongryudong Valley, for example, by installing information boards in this area.
Pogonatum contortum is distributed in Eastern Asia–American temperate regions (Japan, China, India, Far East Russia, and North America) and the Keumgangsan, Seolaksan, Jirisan, and Hallasan regions of Korea at elevations greater than 1,000 m. We found it growing on slightly shaded wet soil near the northern face running from between the peaks of Sangwangbong and Chilbulbong. This species is characterized by a deep green foliage, the leaves of which are slightly curved when dried.


The work was supported by the grant “Biological Diversity Survey of the Flora of Korean Bryophyta (NIBR201902104)” from the National Institute of Biological Resources of Ministry of Environment in Korea to C.W. Hyun. The work of Bakalin was partially supported by grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic researches (20-04-00278).


Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Fig. 1.
The position of Gayasan Mountain within Korean Peninsula and the surveyed routes in this study.
Fig. 2.
Habitats of Gayasan Mountain. A. Sangwangbong (peak). B. Northern slope of Sangwangbong. C. Cliffs near Sangwangbong. D. Low part of Hongryudong valley. E. Middle part of Hongryudong valley. F. Baegundong valley.
Fig. 3.
Notable species of Gayasan Mountain in Korean flora. A. Hattoria yakushimensis (Horik.) R. M. Schust. B. Nipponolejeunea pilifera (Steph.) S. Hatt. C. Drepanolejeunea angustifolia (Mitt.) Grolle. D. Lejeuena otiana S. Hatt. E. Cylindrocolea recurvifolia (Steph.) Inoue. F. Pogonatum contortum (Menzies ex Brid.) Lesq.
Table 1.
Surveyed locals and dates of Gayasan Mountain.
No. Localities Dates
1 Hongryudong valley 28 Apr 2009
2 Hongryudong valley–Sangwangbong (peak) 8 Sep 2009
3 Hongryudong valley–Sangwangbong (peak) 22 Jun 2010
4 Hongryudong valley, Yonggi valley 29–30 Mar 2016
5 Masu valley, Sangseonbul 18 May 2016
6 Hongryudong valley, Geumbawi valley, Gitdaebong 26–28 May 2016
7 Haeinsa temple–Hongjeam-Gwaneumgol 10 Jun 2016
8 Nakwhadam area 30 Jun 2016
9 Youngmoon waterfall area 7 Jun 2016
10 Haeinsa temple–Tosimgol 10 Aug. 2016
11 Samjeong camp, Chiin camp 16–17 Aug. 2016
12 Hongryudong valley, Yungmun waterfall 23–25 Sep 2016
13 Haeinsa temple–Sangwangbong (peak) 8–9 Oct 2016
14 Yonggigol valley 10–14 Oct 2016
15 Hongryudong valley, Sangwangbong (peak), Yonggi valley 28–30 Oct 2016
16 Seoseongjae 4–5 Nov. 2016
17 Seokgyedong valley 18–20 Nov 2016
18 Maehwasan valley 25–27 Nov 2016
Table 2.
Summary of Bryophyte flora of Gayasan Mountain National Park.
Families Genera Species Subsp. Var. Taxa
Marchantiophyta 24 39 88 - 1 89
Bryophyta 33 67 111 2 2 115
Total 57 106 199 2 3 204
Table 3.
Comparison of the bryophyte species richness levels and liverwort indexes in other localities and Gayasan Mountain National Park.
Gayasan Mt. Taebaeksan Mt. Hallasan Mt. Deogyusan Mt. Sobaeksan Mt.
Area (km2) 76.25 70.05 153.33 231.65 322.01
No. of taxa 204 274 378 311 236
Mosses 115 167 253 184 137
Liverworts 89 107 125 127 99
Liverwort index (%) 43.6 39.0 33.1 40.8 41.9
No. of taxa/Area (km2) 2.67 3.91 2.47 1.35 0.74
Table 4.
The latitude fractional composition in Gayasan Mountain with Korean Bryophyte.
Floristic elements (latitudinal types) Taxa Percentages

Korea Gayasan Mt. Korea Gayasan Mt. Comparison
Arctic 24 4 2.3 1.9 −0.4
Arctic-boreal 55 8 5.3 3.9 −1.4
Boreal 62 9 6.0 4.4 −1.6
Boreal-temperate 295 54 28.6 26.5 −2.1
Temperate 214 45 20.7 22.1 1.4
Temperate-subtropical 130 39 12.6 19.1 6.5
Subtropical 90 14 8.7 6.9 −1.8
Subtropical-tropical 61 11 5.9 5.4 −0.5
Multizone 102 20 9.9 9.8 −0.1
Total 1,033 204 100 100 0
Table 5.
The latitude fractional composition in Gayasan Mountain with Korean Bryophyte.
Floristic elements (longitudinal types) Taxa Percentages

Korea Gayasan Mt. Korea Gayasan Mt. Comparison
Amphioceanic 23 3 2.2 1.5 −0.7
Amphipacific 12 4 1.2 2.0 0.8
Asia 95 20 9.2 9.8 0.6
Asia-American 16 7 1.5 3.4 1.9
Asia-Europe 6 4 0.6 2.0 1.4
Circumpolar 298 48 28.8 23.5 −5.3
Disjunctive 22 1 2.1 0.5 −1.6
Eastern Asia 406 84 39.3 41.2 1.9
Eastern Asia-American 38 9 3.7 4.4 0.7
Southeastern Asia 1 0 0.1 0.0 −0.1
Multiarea 116 24 11.2 11.8 0.6
Total 1,033 204 100 100 0

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Appendix 1.

The list of Bryophytes in Gayasan Mountain. The nomenclature and arrangement of taxa are followed the system which is proposed by Goffinet et al. (2009) for mosses and Crandall-Stotler et al. (2009) and Söderström et al. (2016) for liverworts, everywhere with the recent updates. Newly recorded species for Gayasan Mountain are marked with asterisk (*) in front of scientific names.

Scientific name Korean name Longitudinal type latitudinal type Voucher No.
Bryophyta 선류식물문
Andereaeaceae 검정이끼과
Andreaea rupestris var. fauriei (Besch.) Takaki. 검정이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal Park 16100993
Polytrichaceae 솔이끼과
*Atrichum rhystophyllum (Müll. Hal.) Paris 아기주름솔이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Park 16111069
*Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv. 주름솔이끼 Circumpolar Temperate Park 16100948
*Atrichum undulatum var. gracilisetum Besch. 넓은주름솔이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM284
*Pogonatum contortum (Menzies ex Brid.) Lesq. 그늘들솔이끼 Eastern Asia-American Temperate Park 16101023
Pogonatum inflexum (Lindb.) Lac. 아기들솔이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Only literature (Kashimura 1940)
*Pogonatum neesii (Müll. Hal.) Doay. 들솔이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Park 16100953
*Pogonatum spinulosum Mitt. 침들솔이끼 Eastern Asia-American Temperate-subtropical Park 16100973
*Pogonatum urnigerum (Hedw.) P. Beauv. 산들솔이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16101021
Polytrichastrum alpinum (Hedw.) G. L. Sm 산솔이끼 Multiarea Multizone Only literature (Kashimura 1940)
*Polytrichum formosum Hedw. 큰솔이끼 Multiarea Temperate Park 16100957
Diphysciaceae 보리알이끼과
*Diphyscium fulvifolium Mitt 보리알이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Park 16111064
*Diphyscium lorifolium (Cardot) Magombo 곰이끼 Asia Temperate Park 16111076
Funariaceae 표주박이끼과
*Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. 표주박이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16101020
Bryoxiphiaceae 새우이끼과
Bryoxiphium norvegicum subsp. japonicum (Berggr.) Love. & Love. 새우이끼 Circumpolar Temperate Yim-GYM104
Grimmiaceae 고깔바위이끼과
*Grimmia pilifera P.Beauv. 흰털고깔바위이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16111056
*Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid. 서리이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16100963
*Racomitrium fasciculare (Hedw.) Brid. 민서리이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16100919
*Racomitrium heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid. 검정서리이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 1610098
*Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. 된서리이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 1610095
*Schistidium apocarpum (Hedw.) Bruch. & Schimp. 고깔바위이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16100998
Ptychomitriaceae 곱슬이끼과
*Ptychomitrium dentatum (Mitt.) A. Jaeger. 물가곱슬이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Park 16111077
*Ptychomitrium linearifolium Reim. & Sakurai. 돌주름곱슬이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Yim-GYM004
*Ptychomitrium sinense (Mitt.) A. Jaeger. 곱슬이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16100916
Fissidentaceae 봉황이끼과
*Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. 작은봉황이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Park 16100922
*Fissidens teysmannianus Dozy & Molk. 아기봉황이끼 Asia Subtropical-tropical Yim-GYM147
Bruchiaceae 두루미이끼과
*Trematodon longicollis Michx. 두루미이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16101020-1
Erpodiaceae 나무연지이끼과
*Venturiella sinensis (Venturi) Müll. Hal. 나무연지이끼 Eastern Asia-American Temperate Park 1610091
Rhabodoweisiaceae 주름꼬마이끼과
*Rhabdoweisia crispata (With.) Lindb. 주름꼬마이끼 Multiarea Boreal-temperate Park 16100994
Dicranaceae 꼬리이끼과
*Dicranella heteromalla (Hedw.) Schimp. 억새이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16111074
*Dicranum flagellare Hedw. 잎눈꼬리이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16100989
*Dicranum fuscescens Turner. 갈색고산꼬리이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16101019
*Dicranum japonicum Mitt. 꼬리이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Yim-GYM070
*Dicranum majus Turner. 고산나무꼬리이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16101025
Leucobryaceae 흰털이끼과
*Brothera leana (Sull.) Müll. Hal. 사자이끼 Asia-American Boreal-temperate Park 16100966
*Campylopus sinensis (Müll. Hal.) J. P. Frahm 붓이끼 Amphipacific Temperate Park 16100907
*Leucobryum juniperoideum (Brid.) Müll. Hal. 가는흰털이끼 Circumpolar Temperate Park 16100950
Pottiaceae 침꼬마이끼과
*Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw.) P. C. Chen 빨간담배잎이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM285
*Weisiopsis anomala Broth. & Paris 겉꼬마이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Yim-GYM019
*Weissia controversa Hedw. 꼬마이끼 Multiarea Multizone Yim-GYM041
*Weissia crispa (Hedw.) Mitt. 흙구슬이끼 Circumpolar Temperate Yim-GYM061
Bryaceae 참이끼과
*Brachymenium exile (Dozy & Molk.) Bosch & Sande Lac 가는참외이끼 Multiarea Subtropical-tropical Park 16100945
*Brachymenium nepalense Hook. 노란참외이끼 Asia Temperate-subtropical Park 16100975
Bryum argenteum Hedw. 은이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16111051
*Bryum pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) P. Gaertn. 큰철사이끼 Multiarea Multizone Yim-GYM286
*Rosulabryum capillare (Hedw.) J. R. Spence 뱀밥철사이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16100938
Mniaceae 초롱이끼과
*Mnium lycopodioides Schwägr. 납작맥초롱이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 1610096
*Mnium stellare Reichard ex Hedw. 별꼴초롱이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16111061
Plagiomnium acutum (Lindb.) T. J. Kop. 아기들덩굴초롱이끼 Asia Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM100
*Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T. J. Kop. 들덩굴초롱이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16100941
*Plagiomnium maximoviczii (Lindb.)T. J. Kop. 덩굴초롱이끼 Asia Subtropical Park 16111060
*Plagiomnium vesicatum (Besch.) T. J. Kop. 큰잎덩굴초롱이끼 Asia-Europe Temperate Yim-GYM112
*Pohlia proligera (Kindb.) Broth. 흙들수세미이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16100994-1
*Rhizomnium punctatum (Hedw.) T. J. Kop. 미선초롱이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Only literature (Kashimura 1939)
Rhizomnium striatulum (Mitt.) T. J. Kop. 줄미선초롱이끼 Asia Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM230
*Trachycystis flagellaris (Sull. & Lesq.) Lindb. 털아기초롱이끼 Eastern Asia-American Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM287
*Trachycystis microphylla (Dozy & Molk.) Lindb 아기초롱이끼 Eastern Asia-American Subtropical Park 16101030
*Trachycystis ussuriensis (Maack & Regel) T. J. Kop. 꼬인아기초롱이끼 Asia-Europe Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM288
Bartramiaceae 구슬이끼과
*Philonotis falcata (Hook.) Mitt. 낫물가이끼 Multiarea Temperate-subtropical Park 16100933
*Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid. 물가이끼 Multiarea Multizone Yim-GYM018
Hedwigiaceae 톳이끼과
Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) P. Beauv. 톳이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16100937
Hookeriaceae 기름종이이끼과
*Hookeria acutifolia Hook. & Grev. 기름종이이끼 Multiarea Temperate-subtropical Yim-GYM289
Amlystegiaceae 버들이끼과
*Campyliadelphus chrysophyllus (Brid.) R.S.Chopra 가는노란변덕이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 1610099
Leskeaceae 고깔검정이끼과
*Haplocladium angustifolium (Hampe & Müll. Hal.) Broth. 침작은명주실이끼 Multiarea Temperate Yim-GYM077
*Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.) Broth. 작은명주실이끼 Circumpolar Multizone Yim-GYM006
*Miyabea fruticella (Mitt.) Broth. 꼬마나무이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Park 16111084
Thuidiaceae 깃털이끼과
Boulaya mittenii (Broth.) Cardot 아기방울이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Only literature (Kashimura 1940)
*Fauriella tenuis (Mitt.) Cardot 수염이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Park 16100944
*Pelekium versicolor (Hornsch. ex Müll. Hal.) Touw 아기깃털이끼 Asia Subtropical-tropical Yim-GYM024
*Thuidium kanedae Sakurai 깃털이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Park 16100931
Brachytheciaceae 양털이끼과
*Brachythecium buchananii (Hook.) A. Jaeger. 긴양털이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Yim-GYM290
*Brachythecium helminthocladum Broth. & Pari 끈양털이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Yim-GYM080
*Brachythecium plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp. 날개양털이끼 Circumpolar Multizone Yim-GYM101
*Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) Schimp. 양털이끼 Multiarea Temperate Park 16101009
*Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. 물가양털이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM291
*Bryhnia novae-angliae (Sull. & Lesq.) Grout 곱슬세모양털이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM292
*Eurhynchium savatieri Schimp. ex Besch. 가는부리이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Yim-GYM020
*Homalothecium laevisetum Sande Lac. 나뭇가지이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical-tropical Yim-GYM293
Myuroclada maximowiczii (G. G. Borshch.) Steere & W.B. Schofield 쥐꼬리이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM108
*Okamuraea brachydictyon (Cardot) Nog. 가는겉양털이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM294
*Okamuraea hakoniensis (Mitt.) Broth. 겉양털이끼 Asia Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM295
*Rhynchostegium pallidifolium (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 아기양털부리이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Yim-GYM296
*Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) Cardot 물가부리이끼 Circumpolar Temperate-subtropical Park 16100924
Meteorium buchananii subsp. helminthocladulum (Cardot) Nog. 아기누운끈이끼 Asia Temperate-subtropical Only literature (Kashimura 1940)
Hypnaceae 털깃털이끼과
*Gollania ruginosa (Mitt.) Broth. 주름사슴뿔이끼 Asia Boreal-temperate Park 16101007
*Gollania varians (Mitt.) Broth. 사슴뿔이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Park 1610101
*Hypnum oldhamii (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 가는털깃털이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Park 16100940
*Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson 털깃털이끼 Disjunctive Temperate-subtropical Park 1610095
*Hypnum tristo-viride (Broth.) Paris 실털깃털이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Park 16100991
*Pseudotaxiphyllum pohliaecarpum (Sull. & Lesq.) Z. Iwats. 빨간겉주목이끼 Asia Subtropical Park 16111070
*Taxiphyllum aomoriense (Besch.) Z. Iwats. 겹친주목이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM240
*Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) M. Fleisch. 주목이끼 Asia-American Subtropical-tropical Yim-GYM057
Rhytidiaceae 굵은이끼과
Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb. 굵은이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Only literature (Kashimura 1940)
Plagiotheciaceae 산주목이끼과
*Plagiothecium cavifolium (Brid.) Z. Iwats. 둥근산주목이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16101008
*Plagiothecium euryphyllum (Cardot & Thér.) Z. Iwats. 넓은잎산주목이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM012
*Plagiothecium nemorale (Mitt.) A. Jaeger. 산주목이끼 Multiarea Multizone Park 16101006
Entodontaceae 윤이끼과
*Entodon challengeri (Paris) Cardot 넓은잎윤이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Park 16100918
Entodon flavescens (Hook.) A. Jaeger. 가지윤이끼 Asia Boreal-temperate Park 16100968
*Entodon luridus (Griff.) A. Jaeger. 물가윤이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Park 16111059
*Entodon sullivantii (Müll. Hal.) Lindb. 가는윤이끼 Eastern Asia-American Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM054
Pylaisiadelphaceae 털거울이끼과
*Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostris (Bruch & Schimp.) W.R. Buck 털거울이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Park 16111079
Sematophyllaceae 무성아실이끼과
*Sematophyllum subhumile (Müll. Hal.) M. Fleisch. 무성아실이끼 Asia Subtropical-tropical Yim-GYM065
Neckeraceae 납작이끼과
Homalia trichomanoides (Hedw.) Schimp. 윤납작이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM297
*Neckera humilis Mitt. 납작이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Yim-GYM298
*Thamnobryum subseriatum (Mitt. ex Sande Lac.) B.C.Tan. 대호꼬리이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM299
Leptodontaceae 방울이끼과
*Forsstroemia trichomitria (Hedw.) Lindb. 방울이끼 Eastern Asia-American Temperate Yim-GYM082
Myuriaceae 겉쥐꼬리이끼과
Eumyurium sinicum (Mitt.) Nog. 겉쥐꼬리이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical-tropical Only literature (Kashimura 1940)
Anomodontaceae 명주실이끼과
Anomodon giraldii Müll. Hal. 큰명주실이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM300
*Anomodon longifolius (Schleich. ex Brid.) Hartm. 명주실이끼 Asia Boreal-temperate Park 16111085
*Anomodon minor (Hedw.) Lindb. 푸른명주실이끼 Asia-American Boreal-temperate Park 16100930
Anomodon rugelii (Müll. Hal.) Keissl. 곱슬명주실이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Yim-GYM130
*Haplohymenium pseudo-triste (Müll. Hal.) Broth. 꼬마바위실이끼 Amphioceanic Boreal-temperate Park 16100984
*Herpetineuron toccoae (Sull. & Lesq.) Cardot 나선이끼 Asia-American Subtropical-tropical Park 16111080
*Schwetschkeopsis fabronia (Schwagr.) Broth. 개털이끼 Eastern Asia-American Temperate Park 16111086
*Schwetschkeopsis robustula (Broth.) Ando 큰개털이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Park 16100926
Marchantiophyta 태류식물문
Aytoniaceae 삿갓우산이끼과
*Reboulia hemisphaerica (L.) Raddi 삿갓우산이끼 Multiarea Multizone Choi 161194
Conocephalaceae 패랭이우산이끼과
Conocephalum salebrosum Szweyk., Buczk. et Odrzyk. 패랭이우산이끼 Circumpolar Boreal Choi 161180
*Conocephalum japonicum (Thunb.) Grolle 아기패랭이우산이끼 Eastern Asia Multizone Choi 161195
Pelliaceae 물우산대이끼과
*Apopellia endiviifolia (Dicks.) Nebel et D.Quandt 가는물우산대이끼 Circumpolar Boreal Yim-GYM301
Metzgeriaceae 리본이끼과
*Metzgeria lindbergii Schiffn. 리본이끼 Multiarea Multizone Yim-GYM163
*Metzgeria temperata Kuwah. 무성아리본이끼 Amphioceanic Temperate-subtropical Choi 161300
Aneuraceae 초록우산대이끼과
*Aneura maxima (Schiffner) Steph. 큰초록우산대이끼 Multiarea Multizone Choi 161181
Porellaceae 세줄이끼과
Porella caespitans var. cordifolia (Steph.) S. Hatt. ex T. Katag. et T. Yamag. 침세줄이끼 Asia Temperate-subtropical Only literature (Hong 1966)
Porella grandiloba Lindb. 큰세줄이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161223
Porella ulophylla (Steph.) S. Hatt. 주름세줄이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161191
Porella vernicosa Lindb. 가시세줄이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Yim-GYM302
Radulaceae 부채이끼과
*Radula auriculata Steph. 귀부채이끼 Amphipacific Boreal-temperate Choi 161267a
*Radula cavifolia Hampe 큰잎부채이끼 Asia Subtropical-tropical Choi 161242
Radula constricta Steph. 무성아부채이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Choi 161268
*Radula japonica Gottsche 부채이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161198
Radula oyamensis Steph. 처녀부채이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
Frullaniaceae 지네이끼과
Frullania aoshimensis Horik. 가야지네이끼(신칭) Eastern Asia Temperate Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
Frullania appendiculata Steph. 침지네이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161314
Frullania ericoides (Nees ex Mart.) Mont. 초록지네이끼 Circumpolar Subtropical-tropical Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
Frullania davurica Hampe 빨간지네이끼 Asia Boreal-temperate Choi 161252
Frullania densiloba Steph. 가는지네이끼 Eastern Asia-American Subtropical Choi 161205a
Frullania diversitexta Steph. 지네이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical Only literature (Hong 1966)
Frullania inflata Gottsch. 물가지네이끼 Asia-American Temperate-subtropical Only literature (Hong 1966)
Frullania muscicola Steph. 참지네이끼 Asia Temperate Choi 161185
Frullania parvistipula Steph. 종지네이끼 Asia-Europe Temperate-subtropical Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
*Frullania pedicellata Steph. 검정지네이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical Choi 4342
*Frullania schensiana C. Massal. 산지네이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161190
Frullania taradakensis Steph. 들지네이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical Choi 161196
Frullania usamienesis Steph. 우사미지네이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161262
Jubulaceae 가시지네이끼과
*Nipponolejeunea pilifera (Steph.) S. Hatt. 긴털귀이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Choi 161299a
Lejeuneaceae 작은귀이끼과
Acrolejeunea pusilla (Steph.) Grolle & Gradst. 사슴주름이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
*Cheilolejeunea obtusifolia (Steph.) S. Hatt. 아기사슬이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161201
Cololejeunea japonica (Schiffn.) Mizut. 세모귀이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
*Cololejeunea longifolia (Mitt.) Benedix 긴귀이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161200
*Dicranolejeunea yoshinagana (S. Hatt.) Mizut. 검정비늘이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161183
*Drepanolejeunea angustifolia (Mitt.) Grolle 칼잎이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical Choi 161247
Lejeuena discreta Lindb. 낫작은귀이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
Lejeuena japonica Mitt. 작은귀이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161187b
*Lejeuena otiana S. Hatt. 동굴작은귀이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical Choi 161182
Lejeuena parva (S. Hatt.) Mizut. 들작은귀이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Song & Yamada 2009
Lejeuena ulicina (Taylor) Gottsche 아기작은귀이끼 Asia-Europe Subtropical Choi 161205b
Acrolejeunea sandvicensis (Gottsche) Steph. 둥근귀이끼 Circumpolar Temperate-subtropical Choi 161186
Herbertaceae 쌍갈고리이끼과
Herbertus aduncus (Dicks.) Gray 쌍갈고리이끼 Asia-American Arctic-boreal Choi 161299b
Lepidoziaceae 벼슬이끼과
*Bazzania denudata (Torr. ex Lindenb.) Trevis. 산좀벼슬이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161311
Neotrichocoleaceae 털이끼과
Trichocoleopsis sacculata (Mitt.) S. Okamura 가시잎이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choe 1975
Lophocoleaceae 두끝벼슬이끼과
*Chiloscyphus pallescens (Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) Dumort. 아기물비늘이끼 Circumpolar Boreal Yim-GYM303
Chiloscyphus polyanthos (L.) Corda 물비늘이끼 Circumpolar Boreal Choi 161222
Heteroscyphus planus (Mitt.) Schiffn. 비늘이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical Yim-GYM113
Lophocolea heterophylla (Schrad.) Dumort. 두끝벼슬이끼 Circumpolar Boreal Only literature (Hong 1966)
Lophocolea minor Nees 아기두끝벼슬이끼 Circumpolar Arctic-boreal Yim-GYM304
Plagiochilaceae 날개이끼과
Pedinophyllum truncatum (Steph.) Inoue 누운날개이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161302
Plagiochila hakkodensis Steph. 빗타날개이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Only literature (Choe 1975)
Plagiochila ovalifolia Mitt. 둥근날개이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161189
Plagiochila porelloides (Torrey) Lindenb. 숲날개이끼 Circumpolar Arctic-boreal Choi 161293
*Plagiochila sciophylla Nees 아기날개이끼 Asia Subtropical Choi 161184
Xenochila integrifolia (Mitt.) Inoue 세모날개이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
Jamesoniellaceae 가을비늘이끼과
Syzygiella autumnalis (DC.) K. Feldberg, Váňa, Hentschel et Heinrichs 가을비늘이끼 Circumpolar Temperate Choi 161296
Cephaloziaceae 게발이끼과
*Cephalozia otaruensis Steph. 게발이끼 Amphipacific Boreal Yim-GYM305
Cephaloziellaceae 겉게발이끼과
Cephaloziella divaricata (Sm.) Warnst. 들겉게발이끼 Circumpolar Arctic Choi 161296
*Cephaloziella hampeana (Nees) Schiffn. ex Leske 산겉게발이끼 Circumpolar Boreal Choi 161207
*Cephaloziella microphylla (Steph.) Douin 세모겉게발이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161227
Cephaloziella spinicaulis Douin 가시겉게발이끼 Asia-American Temperate Only literature (Hong 1966)
*Cylindrocolea recurvifolia (Steph.) Inoue 물겉게발이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161204
Scapaniaceae 엄마이끼과
*Diplophyllum albicans (L.) Dumort. 흰긴엄마이끼 Amphioceanic Arctic Choi 161210
*Scapania ampliata Steph. 큰엄마이끼 Eastern Asia Arctic-boreal Choi 161234a
*Scapania ciliata Sande Lac. 털엄마이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal Choi 161309a
*Scapania integerrima Steph. 들엄마이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161257a
*Scapania parvitexta Steph. 배루카엄마이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Choi 161262b
*Scapania undulata (L.) Dumort. 자주엄마아끼 Circumpolar Arctic-boreal Choi 161319
Lophoziaceae 갈래잎이끼과
*Hattoria yakushimensis (Horik.) R. M. Schust. 하늘이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161230
*Plicanthus birmensis (Steph.) R. M. Schust. 단풍이끼 Eastern Asia Subtropical-tropical Choi 161202a
Calypogeiaceae 목걸이이끼과
Calypogeia arguta Nees & Mont. ex Nees 아기목걸이이끼 Amphipacific Temperate Choi 161301b
*Calypogeia tosana (Steph.) Steph. 들목걸이이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161322
Delavayellaceae 꼭지망울이끼과
*Liochlaena subulata (A. Evans) Schljakov 꼭지망울이끼 Circumpolar Boreal-temperate Choi 161187a
Jungermanniaceae 망울이끼과
*Jungermannia atrovirens Dumort. 암록망울이끼 Circumpolar Arctic Choi 4353
Jungermannia exsertifolia Steph. 심장형망울이끼 Circumpolar Arctic Only literature (Hong 1966)
Solenostomataceae 둥근망울이끼과
*Nardia assamica (Mitt.) Amakawa 빨간비늘이끼 Eastern Asia Arctic-boreal Choi 4336
*Plectocolea erecta Amakawa 곧은망울이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161249
*Plectocolea infusca Mitt. 큰망울이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161267b
*Plectocolea ovalifolia (Amakawa) Bakalin & Vilnet 누운큰망울이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Choi 7429
*Plectocolea rosulans (Steph.) S. Hatt. 망울이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Yim-GYM184
*Plectocolea truncata (Nees) Bakalin 들망울이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 161258
Protosolenostoma fusiforme (Steph.) Vilnet & Bakalin 방추형망울이끼 Eastern Asia Boreal-temperate Only literature (Song & Yamada 2009)
*Solenostoma pyriflorum Steph. 둥근망울이끼 Asia Arctic-boreal Choi 161264a
*Solenostoma rotundatum Amakawa 산망울이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate-subtropical Choi 4355
*Solenostoma sunii Bakalin & Vilnet 선망울이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 7415
Gymnomitriaceae 은비늘이끼과
*Marsupella pseudofunkii S. Hatt. 가는양끝통이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Choi 161309b
*Marsupella tubulosa Steph. 양끝통이끼 Circumpolar Arctic-boreal Choi 161317
*Marsupella yakushimensis Steph. 산양끝통이끼 Eastern Asia Temperate Yim-GYM306
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