| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Editorial Office |  
Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 52(4); 2022 > Article
/home/virtual/kjpt/journal//../xmls/kjpt-52-4-255.xml KIM, Van HAI, THIEN, BACH, QUANG, HOAN, HAN, BINH, CHOUDHARY, and LEE: Clerodendrum ervatamioides (Lamiaceae): A new record to the flora of Vietnam


Clerodendrum ervatamioides C. Y. Wu was described in 1977 with its type locality in Yunnan, China. During our floristic investigation in the Muong Nhe Nature Reserve of Vietnam of Dien Bien province and in the Muong Te district of the Lai Chau province, we collected several specimens of Clerodendrum ervatamioides, marking the first record of its occurrence in Vietnam. In this paper, details of the morphological features, distribution, ecology, photo plates, and a table comparing the morphological features with its ally Clerodendrum garrettianum Craib are provided.


The genus Clerodendrum s.l. (Linnaeus, 1753) was previously placed in the family Verbenaceae, with about 400 species, distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical, with a few in temperate Asia, Africa, and America (Munir, 1989; Chen and Gilbert, 1994). Some species formerly placed in Clerodendrum subgen. Cyclonema (Hochst.) Gürke and Clerodendrum sect. Konocalyx Verdcourt have been shifted to the genus Rotheca Raf. (Steane and Mabberley, 1998; Harley et al., 2004). In Vietnam, Rotheca is represented by one species, R. serrata (L.) Steane. Recently, phylogenetic studies on Clerodendrum s.l. and related genera based on chloroplast DNA restriction site data, nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer sequences, and the four relatively fastevolving chloroplast DNA regions strongly indicated that Clerodendrum s.l. is not monophyletic but rather is separated into three major clades that are, in general, associated with their geographical distribution: an Asian clade, an African clade and a Pantropical Coastal clade (Steane et al., 1997, 1999; Yuan et al., 2010). Yuan et al. (2010) recognized the Pantropical Coastal clade at the generic level, reviving the genus Volkameria L., which is represented by only one species V. inermis L. in Vietnam.
Recently, Clerodendrum was transferred from the family Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae (Harley et al., 2004; Olmstead, 2005; Yuan et al., 2010). The genus comprises about 150 species in tropical Old World with some species found as far south as Australia and as far north as China, Japan and Korea.
In Vietnam, Clerodendrum is represented by 34 species and 4 varieties (Phuong, 2007), among which two species were transferred to Volkameria and Rotheca (Steane and Mabberley, 1998; Yuan et al., 2010). Cleordendrum pei has been recorded as a new addition to the flora of Vietnam (Quang et al., 2020).
Our previous explorations in the forest areas of Vietnam have yielded a number of new species and new records to the flora of Vietnam (Hai et al., 2020, 2021a, 2021b, 2021c, 2022; Thuong et al., 2020; Son et al., 2022). While continuing with a similar floristic exploration trip to Muong Nhe Nature Reserve in Dien Bien province and Lai Chau province of Vietnam, an interesting species of Clerodendrum was encountered. After thorough investigation of the available literature and type materials, it was identified as C. ervatamioides (Chen and Gilbert, 1994; Wu, 1977; Pei and Chen, 1982). This species was so far recorded only from China but never from Vietnam (Dop, 1935; Ho, 1999; Phuong, 2007). Hence, it is reported here as a new addition to the flora of Vietnam. A detailed description, color photos (Fig. 1), and a distribution map are provided here. With this addition, 34 species are now recognized under Clerodendrum for the flora of Vietnam.


Specimens of Clerodendrum housed in the herbaria HN, VNM, HNU, IBSC P, K, E were examined either physically or online, and relevant literature were consulted (Dop, 1935; Wu, 1977; Pei and Chen, 1982; Chen and Gilbert, 1994; Ho, 1999; Phuong, 2007; Leeratiwong et al., 2011; Wearn and Mabberley, 2011). A morphological comparison of our specimen with allied species was carried out for confirming the identity of the plant. Vouchers were prepared following the standard protocol (Jain and Rao, 1977). Specimens of C. ervatamioides were deposited in the herbarium of the Institute of Ecology & Biological Resources (HN).
The morphological comparison method was used to study the plants. The conservation assessments follow the IUCN Red List categories and criteria (IUCN, 2012; IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee, 2022) based on information from our field surveys.

Taxonomic treatment

Clerodendrum ervatamioides C. Y. Wu, Fl. Yunnan. 1: 460, 1977 (Figs. 2, 3).—TYPE: CHINA. Yunnan, Honghe Hani & Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Jinping County, Mengla Village, 2 Apr 1962, S. G. Wu 3892 (holotype!: KUN).
Shrubs 0.8–4 m tall, erect to climbing. Branchlets greyish brown to brown, 4-angled when young, becoming subterete, sparsely lenticellate, minutely dense hirsute to subglabrous. Leaves simple, opposite; petiole 0.5–1.6 cm, densely hirsute; leaf blade oblong to elliptic, 5.5–17 × 3–5 cm, subleathery, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, margin entire or slightly undulate, apex caudate, ca. 1–1.5 cm; adaxial surface subglabrous, dark green, abaxial surface often light green with prominent veins; secondary veins 5–7 on each side of the midvein. Inflorescences cymes, terminal, capitate, erect, ca. 4–5.5 cm long; peduncle ca. 7 mm, densely hirsute; bracts linear, ca. 1–1.3 cm, densely hirsute; pedicel ca. 3–4 mm, densely hirsute. Calyx red, campanulate, 1.3–1.6 cm, 5-lobed divided 1/3 to base, outside sparsely hirsute and glandular, inside glabrous and sparsely scaly and glandular; lobes reflexed, lanceolate, 9–10 mm long, apex acute. Corolla long-tubular, 4–4.5 cm long, 5-lobed, outside glandular, white; tube cylindrical, slender, 3.5–4.0 cm long, 1.0 mm in diameter, but expanded at the upper 2 mm above the points of insertion of the stamens to form a trumpet-shaped structure; lobes subequal, lower one longer than the other, reflexed, ovatelanceolate, ca. 7 × 5 mm, the apex rounded. Stamens 4, exserted ca. 1 cm from the corolla mouth; filaments ca. 2 cm long, white, glabrous; anthers brown-red, 2 mm long, thecae medifixed, united above, free below. Ovary globular, ca. 1–1.5 mm in diameter, green and glabrous, 4-locular; style linear, ca. 4.6–4.8 cm long, becoming exserted by ca. 10 mm, white in the corolla tube and shading to purple above the mouth, stigma bifid at apex. Fruiting calyx enlarged, thickened. Drupes subglobose, ca. 1 cm in diameter; seed unknown.
Phenology: Flowering March to April. Fruiting April to May.
Habitat and ecology: Clerodendrum ervatamioides is currently found in a few locations in northern Vietnam (Dien Bien and Lai Chau provinces). It was found growing under the shades of secondary evergreen broad-leaved submontane forest on mountain slopes, at elevations about 600 m a.s.l.
Distribution: China (Yunnan), Vietnam (Dien Bien Province, Muong Nhe District, Leng Su Sin commune; Lai Chau Province, Muong Te District, Ta Tong and Ka Lang Commune).
Specimens examined: VIETNAM. Dien Bien Province: Muong Nhe District, Leng Su Sin Commune, 22°19′40.3″N, 102°22′44.3″E, elev. 594 m, 13 Mar 2021, D.V. Hai et al. DVH 398 (HN); ibid, Tran The Bach, Do Van Hai, Bui Hong Quang, Tran Duc Binh, Doan Hoang Son, Vu Anh Thuong, VK 7494 (HN); ibid, 8 May 2021, D.V. Hai et al. DVH 400 (HN); Lai Chau Province: Muong Te District, Ta Tong Commune, 22°15′18.7″N, 102°36′07.2″E, elev. 1,127 m, 7 Apr 2022, Tran The Bach, Do Van Hai, Bui Hong Quang, Duong Thi Hoan, Tran Duc Binh, Le Ngoc Han, Vu Anh Thuong ĐTCS 57 (HN); Lai Chau Province, Muong Te District, Ka Lang Commune, 22°33′56.9″N, 102°27′20.6″E, elev. 433 m, 9 Apr 2022, Tran The Bach, Do Van Hai, Bui Hong Quang, Duong Thi Hoan, Tran Duc Binh, Le Ngoc Han, Vu Anh Thuong ĐTCS 165 (HN).
Conservation status: Clerodendrum ervatamioides has repeatedly been collected in Dien Bien province which lies within a protected area; and two locations in Lai Chau province. During our investigation in this area, few individuals were found under secondary forests. There are no data available on the population assessment in the field. Further field investigations are needed. It is expected that the species may be found in other localities bordering China. In accordance with the IUCN Red List Categories (2012, ver. 3.1) (IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee, 2022), we propose a temporary listing of this species under the Data Deficient (DD) category.
Notes: Morphological characters of C. ervatamioides mostly resemble with C. garrettianum in its shrubby habit, oblong to elliptic leaves, with secondary veins 5–7 on each side of the midvein. However, this species differs from C. garrettianum in having linear bracts, shorter capitate inflorescences, and longer corolla tubes with shorter lobes and white corolla as mentioned in Table 1.
Conclusion: Our study reports the occurrence of C. ervatamioides for the first time in Vietnam. It was hitherto known only from China. Understanding species diversity and distribution records are important for biodiversity assessment. We believe this report will help to understand the Vietnam flora in a better way. It will also help to prioritize the conservation strategy for the country’s valuable flora.


The authors would like to thank the staff of Muong Nhe Nature Reserve, Dien Bien Province for their fieldwork assistance. Thanks are due to the curators of HN, HNU, VNM and P herbaria for the kind permission to access the herbarium material. This research was funded by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (grant no IEBR.CSCL.1/2022-2023) and the framework of the international cooperation program managed by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2019K2A9A1A0609774512). RKC thanks the Director, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune for the facilities and encouragement.


The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Fig. 1.
The distribution map showing Clerodendrum ervatamioides C. Y. Wu in Vietnam and its type location in China.
Fig. 2.
Clerodendrum ervatamioides C. Y. Wu. A. Habit. B. Flowering branch. C. Leaf apex. D. Inflorescence. E. Bud with calyx and bracts. F. Bracts. G. Calyx in front view. H. Calyx in rear view. I. Calyx (open). J. Bud. K. Flower. L. Corolla (open). M. Stamens. N. Ovary and style (Photos by Do Van Hai).
Fig. 3.
Clerodendrum ervatamioides C. Y. Wu. A. Branch with infructescence and fruits. B, C. Infructescence and fruits. D. Calyx (view from top). E. Calyx (bottom view). F. Calyx and fruit (view from top). G. Young fruits. H. Young fruit transverse section (Photos by Do Van Hai).
Table 1.
Morphological comparison of Clerodendrum ervatamioides with its closest ally C. garrettianum (data from Chen and Gilbert, 1994; Phuong, 2007)
Characters Clerodendrum ervatamioides Clerodendrum garrettianum
Habit Shrubs 0.8–4 m tall, erect to climbing Shrubs 1–2 m tall, usually climbing
Petiole 0.5–1.6 cm, densely hirsute 0.5–7 cm, pubescent
Margin of leaves Entire or slightly undulate Entire and ciliate
Leaf apex Caudate Acuminate to short caudate
Inflorescences Cymes terminal, capitate, erect, ca. 4–5.5 cm Panicles of thyrsoid cymes, 3.5–11 cm
Bracts Linear, 1–1.3 cm Lanceolate, 0.5–2 cm
Calyx 1.3–1.6 cm, 5-lobed divided 1/3 to base, outside sparsely hirsute and glandular; lobes lanceolate, 9–10 mm long ca. 0.7 mm, deeply 5-lobed, outside pubescent; lobes narrowly lanceolate, ca. 5 mm long
Corolla White; tube 3.5–4.0 cm long Greenish to yellowish greenish, tube ca. 1.5 cm long
Fruit Subglobose, ca. 1 cm in diameter Globose, ca. 6 mm in diameter
Flowering and fruiting March to May August to November
Distribution China, Vietnam China, Laos, Thailand


Chen, SL and Gilbert, MG. 1994. Verbenaceae. Flora of China. 17: Wu, Z-Y. Raven, PH (eds.), Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St Louis, MO. 1-49.

Dop, P. 1935. Verbenaceae. Flore générale de l’Indo-Chine. 4(7): Lecomte, H (ed.), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Phanérogamie, Paris. 849-884.

Hai, DV. Cuong, NT. Choudhary, RK. Lin, Z and Deng, Y. 2022. Cosmianthemum melinhense (Acanthaceae), a new species from the Me Linh Station for Biodiversity in northeastern Vietnam. Phytotaxa 538: 124-132.
crossref pdf
Hai, DV. Hoan, DT and Choudhary, RK. 2020. Phlogacanthus geoffrayi Benoist (Acanthaceae): A new record to the flora of Vietnam. VNU Journal of Science: Natural Sciences and Technology 36: 49-53.
crossref pdf
Hai, DV. Hoan, DT. Lin, Z. Deng, Y. Choudhary, RK and Lee, J. 2021a. Rungia gialaiensis (Acanthaceae), a new species from the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Phytotaxa 500: 294-300.
Hai, DV. Hoan, DT. Nuraliev, MS. Kuznetsov, AN. Kuznetsova, SP. Choudhary, RK and Lee, J. 2021b. Untangling the taxonomy of Phlogacanthus pulcherrimus (Acanthaceae) newly recorded from Vietnam. Phytotaxa 518: 45-53.
crossref pdf
Hai, DV. Quang, BH. Bach, TT. Binh, TD. Choudhary, RK and Lee, J. 2021c. Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae): A new generic and species record for the flora of Vietnam. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 51: 319-325.
crossref pdf
Harley, RM. Atkins, S. Budantsev, PD. Cantino, PD. Conn, BJ. Grayer, R. Harley, MM. De Kok, R. Kresstovskaja, T. Morales, R. Paton, AJ. Ryding, O and Upson, T. 2004. Labiatae. In The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants: Flowering Plant-Dicotyledons. 7: Kubitzki, K (ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 1-199.

Ho, PH. 1999. Verbenaceae. Cây cỏ Việt Nam: An Illustrated Flora of Viet Nam. 2: Tre Publishing House, Ho Chi Minh. 811-845 (in Vietnamese).

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 3.1. 2nd ed. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland and Cambridge. 1-32.

IUCN Standards and Committee Petitions. 2022. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 15.1. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee. Retrieved Dec. 12, 2022, available from: https://nc.iucnredlist.org/redlist/content/attachment_files/RedListGuidelines.pdf .

Jain, SK and Rao, RR. 1977. A Handbook of Field and Herbarium Methods. Today and Tomorrow Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. 157 pp.

Leeratiwong, C.. Chantaranothai, P and Paton, AJ. 2011. A synopsis of the genus Clerodendrum L. (Lamiaceae) in Thailand. Tropical Natural History 11: 177-211.

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. 2: Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 1200 pp.

Munir, AA. 1989. A taxonomic revision of the genus Clerodendrum L. (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Journal of Adelaide Botanic Gardens 11: 101-173.

Olmstead, R. 2005. A synoptical classification of the Lamiales. Synoptical Classification Vers, 2. Retrieved Dec 15, 2022 available from http://davetank.github.io/research/!Lamiales%20class’n.v.2.8.0.pdf .

Pei, C. and Chen, SL. 1982. Verbenaceae. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. 65: Pei, C. Chen, SL (eds.), Science Press, Beijing. 1-221.

Phuong, VX. 2007. Flora of Vietnam. 6: Verbenaceae. Science & Technics Publishing House, Hanoi. 284 pp.

Quang, BH. Bach, TT. Eum, S. Hai, DV. Khang, NS. Han, LN. Binh, TD. Thuy, NT. Thuong, VA. Trung, NK. Chen, Y-P. Fritsch, PW. Hu, C-M. Ngan, LT. Parnell, JAN. Sennikov, AN. Wood, JRI. Yang, Y. Kuznetsov, AN. Kuznetsova, SP and Nuraliev, MS. 2020. Towards a floristic inventory of Bat Xat Nature Reserve, Vietnam: Thirteen new national records of vascular plants. Wulfenia 27: 233-250.

Son, DH. Hai, DV. Quang, BH. Chen, CW. Duong, LA. Hieu, TV. Choudhary, RK and Lee, J. 2022. Amblovenatum immersum (Thelypteridaceae): A new record for the flora of Vietnam. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 52: 108-113.
crossref pdf
Steane, DA and Mabberley, DJ. 1998. Rotheca (Lamiaceae) revived. Novon 8: 204-206.
Steane, DA. Scotland, RW. Mabberley, DJ and Olmstead, RG. 1999. Molecular systematics of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): ITS sequences and total evidence. American Journal of Botany 86: 98-107.
crossref pmid pdf
Steane, DA. Scotland, RW. Mabberley, DJ. Wagstaff, SJ. Reeves, PA and Olmstead, RG. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of Clerodendrum s.l. (Lamiaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA. Systematic Botany 22: 229-243.
Thuong, SD. Hai, DV. Choudhary, RK. Bach, TT. Hoang, MC. Nguyen, HQ. Nguyen, TTN. Tucker, GC and Lee, J. 2020. Capparis kbangensis (Capparaceae), a new species from central Vietnam. PhytoKeys 151: 83-91.
pmid pmc
Wearn, JA and Mabberley, DJ. 2011. Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae) in Borneo. Systematic Botany 36: 1050-1061.
Wu, CY. 1997. Verbenaceae. Flora Yunnanica. 1: Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica (ed.), Science Press, Beijing. 390-497.

Yuan, Y-W. Mabberley, DJ. Steane, DA and Olmstead, RG. 2010. Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): Implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy. Taxon 59: 125-133.
crossref pdf
Editorial Office
Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
Department of Biology, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
TEL: +82-42-280-2434   E-mail: kjpt1968@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © Korean Society of Plant Taxonomists.                 Developed in M2PI