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Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 52(1); 2022 > Article
JANG and LEE: Nomenclatural review of new names proposed by Yong No Lee

Abstract

This review provides information about the nomenclatural status of new names proposed by Dr. Yong No Lee, in accordance with the current International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants. A total of 363 designations and names were proposed from 16 books and 95 papers by Dr. Yong No Lee, and their status was examined, with 161 designations found to be not validly published. In addition, 13 later isonyms and ten later homonyms were found by this review. However, 173 names were found to be legitimate. All designations and names were categorized according to their nomenclatural status and were listed by place of publication. The nomenclatural statuses of six designations or names, including “Iris odaesanensis,” were not confirmed in this review. It is therefore necessary to undertake further research into the nomenclatural status of these taxa by examining their types and published protologues.

INTRODUCTION

An accurate and stable naming system for scientific names of organisms is essential for effective scientific communication (Turland, 2019). The International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants, hereinafter referred to as “the Code” (Prior to 2012, this publication was known as the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature), was adopted to prevent the ambiguous creation and use of scientific names. The history of the Code is discussed in detail by Nicolson (1991), Rijckevorsel (2014), and Turland (2019). The preamble of the current Code (the Shenzhen Code) (Turland et al., 2018) stated that, “This Code aims at the provision of a stable method of naming taxonomic groups, avoiding and rejecting the use of names that may cause error or ambiguity or throw science into confusion. Next in importance is the avoidance of the useless creation of names.”
The Code clearly distinguishes between names and designations. Use of the word “name” refers to a name that has been validly published, whether it is legitimate or illegitimate (see Art. 6.3 of the Code). The term “designation” is used for what appears to be a name, which has not been validly published (see Glossary of the Code). A designation is not to be regarded as a name (Art. 6.3 and Glossary) and does not have any nomenclatural status according to the Code (Art. 12.1). Therefore, the name of a taxon must be validly published in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Code prior to its scientific use. In this context, Chang and Kim (2002) listed designations of South Korean woody plants. Meanwhile, Kim et al. (2005) organized designations that had been proposed to be nomenclatural novelties by Dr. Tchang Bok Lee.
Dr. Yong No Lee (1920–2008) had many major accomplishments in the history of Korean plant taxonomy. This included publishing numerous nomenclatural novelties, such as names of new taxa, new combinations, and names at new ranks through extensive study of the flora of the Korean Peninsula. In the first edition of his book, the New Flora of Korea (Lee, 2006a), 239 nomenclatural novelties are listed under the subheading New Plant Names on Flora of Korea. In addition, during his term in office as the director of the Korea Plant Research Institute from 1996 to 2007, Dr. Yong No Lee launched the journal Bulletin of Korea Plant Research. He also published several papers in this journal, proposing numerous new names of taxa.
However, certain new names of taxa proposed by Dr. Yong No Lee are known not to have been validly published (Chang and Kim, 2002). For example, Lee (2003) published “Anemone pendulisepala” as a new species, which was subsequently recorgnized as an accepted name in several taxonomic literature (Lee, 2006a; Lee et al., 2006, 2012). However, Lee (2003) did not specify the herbarium in which its type was stored (Art. 40.7) and “Anemone pendulisepala” was not validly published by Lee (2003). Thus, Anemone pendulisepala Y. N. Lee was later validated by Son et al. (2017). In addition, Chang and Kim (2002) identified six nomenclatural novelties proposed by Lee (1996) which had not been validly published. However, this assessment only encompassed woody plants. The nomenclatural status of all new names proposed by Dr. Yong No Lee have not, to date, been investigated.
Dr. Yong No Lee often proposed same new names for the same taxon in different journals across a diverse range of literature. This often led to considerable confusion for authors when citing the place of valid publication for these names. For example, Lee (2006b), Kim (2004, 2017), Korean National Arboretum (2017, 2020), Park et al. (2018), National Institute of Biological Resources (2019), and International Plant Names Index (IPNI) (2021) cite Lee (2000b) as the place of the valid publication for Pulsatilla tongkangensis Y. N. Lee & T. C. Lee. However, this name was previously validated by Lee (2000a) (see Results and Discussion).
This review compiles nomenclatural novelties proposed by Dr. Yong No Lee, including the names of new taxa, new combinations, and names at new ranks. Furthermore, the nomenclatural status of these taxa are examined according to the current Code. In addition, information is provided on the nomenclatural status of these taxa and their accurate places of valid publications.

Materials and Methods

This review encompasses the majority of books and papers authored by Dr. Yong No Lee. These publications were gathered, and nomenclatural novelties proposed by Dr. Yong No Lee were examined. This included names of new taxa, new combinations, and names at new ranks. The nomenclatural novelties, namely designations, later isonyms, later homonyms, and legitimate names were organized by their nomenclatural status, according to the Code (Turland et al., 2018). When they were proposed as new combinations, names at new rank or replacement names, the nomenclatural novelties of their basionyms or replaced synonyms were also examined. Homonyms and isonyms were identified using online indices from IPNI (2021) and Tropicos (2021). However, names mentioned as legitimate in this review may be illegitimate or may have no nomenclatural status. This is because online indices and an incomprehensive selection of literature was used to identify homonyms and isonyms. The terms and articles used in this review followed the current Code, which was accepted in 2017. Only the Korean names that were mentioned first in each reference were recorded in the lists below. Full and direct references to basionyms or replaced synonyms were not provided to prevent the inadvertent publication of any names listed in this review that are not currently accepeted (see Art. 41.5). The authors declare that the names in this review were not accepted by us as taxa names (see Art. 36.1).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this study, a total of 95 papers in various journals including the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research (hereafter referred to as “the Bulletin”) and 16 books written by Dr. Yong No Lee were collected (Table 1, Appendix 1). This included the entire editions (first to sixth editions) of the Flora of Korea (“the Flora”), the first and the second edition of the Alpine Flowers of Korea (“the Alpine”), and the obtainable editions (first to third editions) of the New Flora of Korea (“the New Flora”). Prior to the publication of the Illustrated Flora of Korea (Lee and Chu, 1956), no additional books authored by Dr. Yong No Lee were identified. The Illustrated Flora of Korea contains descriptions in Korean and illustrations of 1,200 taxa. This includes plants (pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms), bryophytes, lichens, fungi, and algae with distributions that include South Korea. However, no nomenclatural novelties for plants were found in this publication.
A total of 363 nomenclatural novelties proposed by Dr. Yong No Lee were gathered from the other publications. After organizing these nomenclatural novelties according to their nomenclatural status, 161 were found to be not validly published and 13 were shown to be later isonyms. The remaining 183 were validly published names, of which ten were illegitimate as later homonyms and 173 were legitimate names. Meanwhile, six designations or names required additional examination. This review deferred nomenclatural status identification for these taxa.
The following sections provide a discussion of nomenclatural issues found in key publications, as well as new names by Dr. Yong No Lee. Lists of designations that are not validly published are also presented. A list of later isonyms and earlier isonyms is also included, as well as a list of later homonyms and earlier homonyms. Finally, a list of legitimate names is presented, as well as a list of names for which the examination of nomenclature status was deferred during this review.

Overview of publications and new names and their nomenclatural confusion

The first edition of the Flora was published on 30 October 1996, and the sixth edition on 25 May 2004 (Table 1, Appendix 1). In the Flora, Dr. Yong No Lee listed 112 nomenclatural novelties under the subheading “New plant names on Korea” (Lee, 1996). Latin descriptions or diagnoses for these nomenclatural novelties were accompanied with the indication of status of new proposals such as “sp. nov.,” or “comb. nov.” The New Plant Names on Korea was published with the same content, including the Latin descriptions, references to previous publications, and the indications of status of new proposals, as all six editions of the Flora. In addition, Supplement 1, Supplement 2, and Supplement 3 were added as contents to the third, fourth, and fifth editions of the Flora, respectively. The pagination of “New plant names on Korea” was changed, with these amendments to the publication retained in subsequent editions (Table 2). Consequently, this created difficulties in accurate citation of the place of valid publication of names. Some names such as Pulsatilla cernua var. koreana (Y. Yabe ex Nakai) Y. N. Lee (Lee, 1967b) were proposed as “com. nov.” for inclusion in the Flora when legitimate names had already published in other papers. In the three supplements (Table 2), approximately 40 new names were proposed by adding new accompanying descriptions or diagnoses or by citing earlier publications. However, some of these taxa were already validly published in other publications by Dr. Yong No Lee himself. Some taxa were described but not validly published in the supplement, and then validly published in other subsequent publications. This led to errors in reference citations for these scientific names.
The first edition of the Alpine (Lee, 2000a) was published on 25 April 2000 and its second edition (Lee, 2001) was published on 30 September 2001 (Table 1). However, reference citation errors, referring to this book, appear in several taxonomic literatures as well as online indices for the validly published Pulsatilla tongkangensis Y. N. Lee & T. C. Lee and Iris neosetosa Y. N. Lee. In the case of I. neosetosa, it appears as a new species with the same Latin description and type designation in Supplement 3 of the fifth and sixth editions of the Flora (Lee, 2002b; Lee, 2004) and the paper (Lee, 2002c) included in the second volume of the Bulletin. Therefore, Lee (2006b) cited the fifth edition of the Flora (Lee, 2002b) and Tropicos (2021) referenced the second volume of the Bulletin (Lee, 2002c) as being the place of the valid publication of this name. However, I. neosetosa has already been validly published in the second edition of the Alpine (Lee, 2001). Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020) and IPNI (2021) referenced the first edition of the Alpine as the place of valid publication of I. neosetosa. However, the name only appears in the second edition of the Alpine (Lee, 2001) and not in the first edition of this publication (Lee, 2000a).
In addition, Pulsatilla tongkangensis was validly published in the first edition of the Alpine (Lee, 2000a) with the Latin diagnosis and type designation. However, the name also appears as a new species (“sp. nov.”) with the same Latin diagnosis and type designation in a paper (Lee, 2000b) published in the first volume of the Bulletin, the second edition of the Alpine (Lee, 2001), and Supplement 2 in the fourth edition of the Flora (Lee, 2000a). The dates of each publication are listed in Table 1. In consequence, Kim (2004, 2017), Lee (2006b), Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020), Park et al. (2018), National Institute of Biological Resources (2019), and IPNI (2021) erroneously cited the paper (Lee, 2000b) from the first volume of the Bulletin as being a valid publication of the name. This reference citation error for P. tongkangensis in the taxonomic literature was thought to be derived from a remark by IPNI (2021) about this name. IPNI (2021) stated that these taxa “also published in Y. N. Lee, Alp. Flow. Korea 90. 2000 [after June 6th, 2000].” This indicates it being considered for publication after 6 June 2000, instead of 25 April 2000. Therefore, IPNI (2021) cited the paper (Lee, 2000b) published in the first volume of the Bulletin, which was published on 10 May 2000, as the protologue of P. tongkangensis. IPNI (2021) did not justify the publication date of the Alpine that was cited. However, this is considered relevant in the publication of the abovementioned I. neosetosa, which was published in the second edition of the Alpine (Lee, 2001). This took place after the specimen collected on 6 June 2000 was designated as being the type. IPNI (2021) reference did not distinguish between the first and second editions of the Alpine when citing the Alpine publication dates as being after 6 June 2000, for both I. neosetosa and P. tongkangensis. Iris neosetosa was only published in the second edition of the Alpine (Lee, 2001), as mentioned above. There is, therefore, insufficient evidence to conclude that the decision by IPNI (2021) to refer to the publication date as being after 6 June 2000, referred to the corresponding the Alpine issue. It would therefore be appropriate to consider the valid publication of P. tongkangensis to be in the first edition of the Alpine (Lee, 2000a).
The third edition of the New Flora, the first edition of which was published on 15 September 2006, was published on 15 June 2010 (Table 1, Appendix 1). Subsequent editions were unobtainable for this review. The contents of the second and third editions of the New Flora are thought to be the same, but the first edition has some differences in comparison to them. For example, the protologue of Scirpus dioicus Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh only appears in the first edition of the New Flora (Lee, 2006a). Neoscirpus Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh and Neoscirpus dioicus Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh are only present in the second and third editions (Lee, 2007, 2010). Eranthis pinnatifida f. purpurea Y. N. Lee was validly published in the first edition of the New Flora (Lee, 2006a). It was then recognized as a not validly published designation ‘Eranthis byunsanensis f. purpurea’ in the second and third editions (Lee, 2007, 2010). It is therefore necessary to take into account that Dr. Yong No Lee undertook distinct taxonomic treatment for the same taxa in different editions of the same literature. In the first, second and third editions of the New Flora, the 239 names previously reported as new nomenclatural novelties by Dr. Yong No Lee are listed under the subheading New plant names on flora of Korea (Lee, 2006b, 2007, 2010). These names were published after Lee (2005) re-edited the publication, in which the protologues of the new names were referenced.
Finally, IPNI (2021) ascribed ‘Cyperus orthostachyus var. pinnateformis’ and ‘C. orthostachyus var. umbellus’, which were not validly published, to ‘Y. C. Oh & Y. N. Lee’, and stated that Dr. Yong No Lee has applied these designations. However, they were originally proposed by ‘Y. C. Oh & Yeong Hae Lee’ (Oh, 2000) and therefore were excluded from this review.

List of designations, which were not validly published

The following 161 designations were proposed as new names, but they were not validly published. They are listed in alphabetical order and their original spellings are retained. Any orthographical errors that may be present have not been corrected. For the reference citations designated in the Flora, Alpine, and New Flora, for each book, the designation was cited for the first edition in which it appeared.

1. Designations contrary to Art. 38.1 of the Code

According to Art. 38.1(a), in order for a new taxon to be validly published, the name must be accompanied by a description or diagnosis of the taxon or, if none is provided in the protologue, by referring to a previously published description or diagnosis that is considered to be valid. “Chrysanthemum ×intermedium” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996) 이화구절초 — The designation appeared with “Species affinis Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herb. ssp. acutilobum et C. zawadskii Herb. ssp. latilobum sed differt a specie intermedium (This species is similar to Chrysanthemum zawadskii subsp. acutilobum and C. zawadskii subsp. latilobum, but it has intermediate characteristics)”. This statement does not distinguish how these features differ. Therefore, it does not satisfy the requirement of Art. 38.1(a) for “description or diagnosis” (see Art. 38.2 Ex. 4). It was also published without indicating it is a type specimen by the use of the word “type.”

2. Designations contrary to Art. 39.1

According to Art. 39.1, for a new taxon to be considered validly published, if it was published between 1 January 1935 and 31 December 2011, inclusive, it must be accompanied by a Latin description, diagnosis or reference to a previously and effectively published Latin description or diagnosis. A total of 23 designations listed below were proposed as names of new taxa with Korean or English descriptions, but they were not validly published. This is because, contrary to Art. 39.1, they were proposed without a Latin description or diagnosis. In addition, they were not considered valid if they were published without any mention of the word “type,” and without mentioning a specific herbarium in which the type is conserved (contrary to Art. 40).
  • “Astilbe koreana f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 280, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 499, 2006) 흰숙은노루오줌.

  • “Cirsium chanroenicum var. pinnatiforium” (Lee, Alp. Fl. Korea 409, 2000) 깃잎정영엉겅퀴.

  • “Corydalis maculata f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 451, 2006) 흰점현호색.

  • “Gymnadenia cucullata f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 676, 2006) 흰구름병아리난초.

  • “Heloniopsis koreana f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 405, 2006) 흰처녀치마.

  • “Heloniopsis tubiflora f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 406, 2006) 흰숙은처녀치마.

  • “Hepatica asiatica f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 354, 2006) 흰노루귀.

  • “Iris rossii var. album” (Lee, Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fauna and Flora 18: 165, 782, 1976) 흰각시붓꽃.

  • “Jeffersonia dubia f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 402, 2006) 흰깽깽이풀.

  • “Justicia procumbens f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 217, 2006) 흰쥐꼬리망초.

  • “Leonurus macranthus f. albus” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 145, 2006) 흰송장풀.

  • “Lythrum anceps f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 784, 2006) 흰부처꽃.

  • “Miscanthus subsect. Condensati” (Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 291, 1964).

  • “Miscanthus subsect. Sinenses” (Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 259, 1964).

  • “Neottianthe cucullata var. variegata” (Lee, Korean J. Biol. 2: 48, 1957) 점박이병아리난초.

  • “Ranunculus franchetii f. duplopetalus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 178, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 366, 2006) 겹왜미나리아재비.

  • “Rhododendron yedoense var. hallaisanense f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 28, 2006) 흰한라산철쭉.

  • “Sanguisorba officinalis f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 557, 2006) 흰오이풀.

  • “Spiranthes sinensis f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1122, 1996) 흰타래난초.

  • “Spiranthes sinensis f. albifloris” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 688, 2006) 흰타래난초.

  • “Vicia amoena f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 384, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 615, 2006) 흰갈퀴나물.

  • “Viola hondoensis f. albiflora” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 759, 2006) 흰아욱제비꽃.

  • “Viola phalacrocarpa f. alba” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 764, 2006) 흰민둥제비꽃.

3. Designations contrary to Art. 40.1

According to Art. 40.1, publication on or after 1 January 1958 of the name of a new taxon at the rank of genus or below is valid only when it is indicated that the name is a type description. The following 60 designations were not validly published, because, contrary to Art. 40.1, they were described without indicating they are types, even though a Latin diagnosis is included.
  • “Abies nephrolepis f. nigricarpa” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1156, 1996) 검은분비.

  • “Adenophora curvidens f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 흰톱잔대.

  • “Adenophora grandiflora f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 흰도라지모싯대.

  • “Adenophora triphylla var. japonica f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 흰잔대 — A. triphylla f. albiflora (Tatew.) H. Hara (Enum. Sperm. Jap. 2: 93, 1952) was validly published previously.

  • “Allium taquetii f. albiflorum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 흰한라부추.

  • “Aster spathulifolius f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1161, 2002) 흰해국.

  • “Astragalus membranaceus f. albiflorus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흰황기.

  • “Calystegia sepium f. album” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰 큰메꽃.

  • “Carex okamotoi f. variegata” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1164, 1996) 무늬지리대사초.

  • “Cirsium schantarense f. albiflorum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996) 흰도깨비엉겅퀴.

  • “Cirsium setidens f. albiflorum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 흰고려엉겅퀴.

  • “Corydalis ambigua f. lacticolora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰왜현호색.

  • “Corydalis decumbens f. albiflorus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰좀현호색.

  • “Corydalis incisa f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰자주괴불주머니.

  • “Corydalis turtschaninovii f. albifloris” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰댓잎현호색.

  • “Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus f. albiflorus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1156, 1996) 흰술패랭이꽃 — D. superbus f. albiflorus Honda (Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 52: 140, 1938) was validly published previously.

  • “Erigeron thunbergii subsp. glabratus f. albiflorus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996) 흰구름국화.

  • “Filipendula formosa f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰지리터리풀.

  • “Filipendula yezoensis f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰터리풀 — F. yezoensis f. alba Shimizu (J. Fac. Textile Sci. Technol. Shinsu Univ., A 26: 9, 1961) was validly published previously.

  • “Gentiana axillariflora var. coreana f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰큰용담.

  • “Gentiana scabra var. buergeri f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰용담.

  • “Geranium shikokianum var. quelpaertense f. albiflorum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흰섬쥐손이.

  • “Gymnadenia conopsea f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1167, 2002) 흰손바닥난초.

  • “Gymnadenia cucullata var. variegata” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1164, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 63, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 750, 2006) 점박이구름병아리난초 — This designation was proposed with the name of a new variety by Lee (1996) including Latin diagnosis, but it was not validly published, because it lacks the indication that it is a type. Although Lee (2005, 2006b) cited the place of publication for “Neottianthe cucullata var. variegata” (Lee, Korean J. Biol. 2: 48, 1957) and “N. cucullata var. variegata,” they have not been validly published (see section “Designations contrary to Art. 39.1”).

  • “Heteropappus hispidus f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996) 흰개쑥부장이 — The same name H. hispidus f. albiflorus Y. N. Lee (Lee and Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 9, 2006) was validly published.

  • “Hosta capitata f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 흰 일월비비추.

  • “Iris ensata var. spontanea f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 흰꽃창포.

  • “Iris odaesanensis f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 흰노랑무늬붓꽃.

  • “Iris odaesanensis f. purpurascens” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 14, 2002) 보라노랑무늬붓꽃.

  • “Iris sanguinea f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 흰 붓꽃 — I. sanguinea f. albiflora (Makino) Makino (J. Jap. Bot. 6: 32, 1929) was validly published previously.

  • “Lespedeza rosea” (Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1159, 2002) 꽃비 수리.

  • “Lilium hansonii f. mutatum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 민 섬말나리.

  • “Liparis nervosa var. viridis” (Lee et al., Wild Plants of Jeju Island 619, 2001) 녹난초.

  • “Lobelia chinensis var. tetrapetala” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 새수염가래꽃.

  • “Melampyrum setaceum f. albiflorum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 흰애기며느리밥풀.

  • “Oreorchis hallasanensis” (Lee et al., Wild Plants of Jeju Island 623, 2001) 한라감자난초.

  • “Orostachys minutus f. albus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰좀바위솔.

  • “Oxytropis anertii f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흰두 메자운.

  • “Papaver radicatum var. dissectipetalum” (Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1155, 2002) 갈래두메양귀비.

  • “Papaver radicatum var. pseudoradicatum f. albiflorum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰두메양귀비.

  • “Paris verticillata var. nigra” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 검 은삿갓나물.

  • “Pedicularis resupinata var. oppositiflorum f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 흰마주송이풀.

  • “Pedicularis resupinata var. resupinata f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 흰송이풀 — P. resupinata f. albiflora (Honda) H. Hara (Enum. Sperm. Jap. 1: 267, 1949) was validly published previously.

  • “Persicaria lapathifolia f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1156, 1996) 흰명아주여뀌.

  • “Pogonia japonica f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1164, 1996) 흰큰방울새란.

  • “Polemonium kiushianum f. albiflorum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰꽃고비.

  • “Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum f. variegatum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 무늬둥굴레 — P. odoratum f. variegatum Y. N. Lee ex F. M. Vázquez & S. Ramos (Acta Bot. Malac. 30: 172, 2005) was validly published.

  • “Potentilla matsumurae f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996) 흰좀양지꽃.

  • “Primula sachalinensis f. albida” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흰좀설앵초.

  • “Primula sieboldii f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흰앵초 — P. sieboldii f. albiflora H. Hara (J. Jap. Bot. 10: 771, 1934) was validly published previously.

  • “Rabdosia inflexa f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰산박하.

  • “Ranunculus japonicus f. albiflorus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1157, 1996) 흰미나리아재비.

  • “Scutellaria dentata var. alpina f. albida” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰수골무꽃.

  • “Scutellaria indica f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰골무꽃.

  • “Scutellaria strigillosa f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰참골무꽃 — S. strigillosa f. albiflora Kawano (Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 17: 104, 1958) was validly published previously.

  • “Streptopus ovalis f. albus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 흰 금강애기나리.

  • “Swertia pseudochinensis f. alba” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흰자주쓴풀.

  • “Thymus quinquecostatus f. albus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 흰백리향.

  • “Veronica stelleri var. longistyla f. rufescens” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 흰분홍두메투구꽃 — “V. stelleri f. rufescens” first appeared as a new name by Lee (Flowering Plants on Baectu Mountain 146, 290, 1991) without a Latin description or diagnosis.

  • “Vicia unijuga var. ouensanensis f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흰큰나비나물 — V. unijuga f. albiflora Nakai (Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 37: 17, 1923) was validly published previously.

4. Designations contrary to Art. 40.2

The following designations were not validly published, because contrary to Art. 40.2, they were based on two or more gatherings. In these cases, the author failed to designate which collection was the type.
  • “Aster magnus” (Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 31, 1998; Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 3, 1147, 1998) 왕갯쑥부장이 — It was published with gatherings from two different collecting dates (“Mar 26 1977; Oct 15 1997”). As neither have been designated as the type, the designation was not validly published.

  • “Hylomecon vernalis var. sasundaeënsis” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 6, 2002) 새발노랑매미꽃 — When it was published, two different gatherings were both designated as the type. Therefore, the designation was not validly published.

  • “Rhododendron schlippenbachii f. albiflorum” (Lee, Korean J. Bot. 17: 85, 1974) 흰철쭉 — It was published with two gatherings collected from different dates (“May 15 1972; May 20 1970”). As nether specimen was designated as the type, the designation was not validly published.

  • “Schisandra viridicarpa” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 3, 10 Oct 2002) 청오미자 — It was published with a Latin description, indicated to be a type, and specified at which institute the type is conserved. However, it was not validly published because two different gatherings (“Jun 15 2001, Y. Shin; Jun 18 2002, Y. Lee”) were both designated as the type. This designation was proposed by Lee (Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1150, 2002), but it was published without indicating that it was the type. Therefore, it was not validly published.

5. Designations contrary to Art. 40.6 and/or 40.7

A total of 16 designations listed below were not validly published, because their protologues did not indicate “typus” or “holotypus,” or its abbreviation, or its equivalent in a modern language (contrary to Art. 40.6) and/or did not specify which herbarium, collection, or institution in which the type is conserved (contrary to Art. 40.7).
  • “Adonis amurensis f. algentatus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1157, 1996) 은빛복수초.

  • “Adonis amurensis subsp. nanus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1157, 1996) 애기복수초.

  • “Adonis amurensis f. viridescensicalyx” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1157, 1996) 연노랑복수초.

  • “Anemone pendulisepala” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 2, 2003) 태백바람꽃 — Although “A. pendulisepala” was published with a Latin description and inclusion of the word “type”, the designation was not validly published, because, contrary to 40.7, the herbarium in which the type is conserved was not specified. Anemone pendulisepala Y. N. Lee was validated by Son et al. (Phytotaxa 311: 200, 27 Jun 2017). The same name by Kim (Korean Endemic Pl. 69, 21 Aug 2017) is a later homonym.

  • “Clematis heracleifolia f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1157, 1996) 흰조희풀.

  • “Clematis mankiuensis” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1157, 1996) 구례종덩굴.

  • “Corydalis grandicalyx f. albifloris” (Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 3, 1142, 1998) 흰갈퀴현호색.

  • “Cypripedium guttatum f. albiflorum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1164, 1996) 흰털복주머니란 — C. guttatum f. albiflorum Aver. (Turczaninowia 2: 30, 1997) was already validly published from a different type.

  • “Dianthus superbus-chinensis” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1156, 1996) 꽃패랭이.

  • “Inula salicina var. minipetala” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 전의금불초.

  • “Luzula odaesanensis” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996) 오대산 새밥 — Lee (1996) published “L. odaesanensis” with a Latin description, indicating that it is a type (23 May 1983, Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh s.n.). However, the designation was not considered validly published, because, contrary to Art. 40.7 of the Code, there was no mention of the name of the herbarium in which its type is conserved. Luzula odaesanensis M. Kim (Korean Endemic Pl. 372, 2017) was validly published with an English description and different type (16 May 2016, H. Jo JE50157).

  • “Phlomis umbrosa f. albiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 3, 1146, 1998) 흰속단.

  • “Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum f. album” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 24, 2003) 흰산꼬리풀.

  • “Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum f. roseum” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 24, 2003) 분홍산꼬리풀.

  • “Pseudostellaria angustifolia” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1156, 1996) 좁은잎개별꽃.

  • “Pseudostellaria multiflora” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1156, 1996) 다 화개별꽃.

6. Designations contrary to Art. 41.5

The 20 designations listed below were proposed as new combinations, names at new rank, or replacement names after 1 January 1953. However, (1) they were not validly published, because, contrary to Art. 41.5, the place of valid publication of the basionym or replaced synonym, with page or plate reference and date, were not clearly indicated. (2) The second sentence of Art. 41.5 states “On or after 1 January 2007, a new combination, name at new rank, or replacement name is not validly published unless its basionym or replaced synonym is cited.” One designation was published without citing its basionym.
  • “Abelia tyaihyoni var. mosanensis” (Lee and Kim, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 19, 2003) 댕강나무.

  • “Acanthopanax senticosus var. subinervis” (Lee, Fl. Korea 544, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 806, 2006) 왕가시오갈피.

  • “Adonis amurensis subsp. multiflora” (Lee and Kim, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 36, 2004; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 42, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 734, 2006) 세복수초.

  • “Adonis amurensis var. pseudoamurensis” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 38, 2004) 개복수초.

  • “Artemisia iwayomogi var. discolor” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 58, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 746, 2006) 흰더위지기.

  • “Astragalus hallasanensis” (Lee and Do, J. Korean Cult. Res. Inst. 1: 365–366, 1959).

  • “Bistorta major var. angustifolia” (Lee, Fl. Korea 102, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 270, 2006) 가는범꼬리.

  • “Eranthis byunsanensis f. purpurea” (Lee, New Fl. Korea, ed. 2, 2: 734, 2007; Lee, New Fl. Korea, ed. 3, 2, 734. 2010) — This designation was published with a full and direct reference to the author and the place of valid publication of its basionym, but without citing its basionym.

  • “Fagus japonicus var. multinervis” (Lee, Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fauna and Flora 18: 180, 783, 1976; Lee, Fl. Korea 65, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 227, 2006) — Kim (2004, 2017) and Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020) cited references to the designation as being from the “Journal of Korean Research Institute for Better Living 10: 373, 1966.” However, this journal has been published since 1968 and Volume 10, published in 1973, has neither the page 373 nor the information on Fagus. When Lee (1967a) published the Fagus in the Journal of Korea Culture Research Institute, he only noted “Probably F. multinervis should be the same species as that of F. japonicus; therefore, Fagus multinervis should be included in F. japonicus. Among the publications collected for this review, the designation first appeared in Lee (Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fauna and Flora 18: 180, 783, 1976). However, this is not considered not validly published, because there is no reference to the basionym. This review revealed that F. japonicus var. multinervis (Nakai) Y. N. Lee ex W. K. Paik (Bull. Kor. Ass. Cons. Nature 13: 18, 1994) was inadvertently but validly published by Paik, who included a full and direct reference to the basionym (Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 32: 103, not 108, 1918b). Also, the name F. japonica var. multinervis (Nakai) Y. N. Lee ex Govaerts & Frodin (World Checklist & Bibliogr. Fagales 144, 1998) is not available for use because it is a later isonym of Paik (1994).

  • “Fragaria nipponica subsp. mandshurica” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 737, 2006) 땃딸기.

  • “Fragaria nipponica var. mandshurica” (Lee and Kim, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 10, 2003) 땃딸기.

  • “Fragaria nipponica subsp. orientalis” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 47, 2005) 땃딸기.

  • “Fragaria nipponica var. orientalis” (Lee and Kim, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 10, 2003).

  • “Kirengeshoma palmata var. coreana” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 515, 2006) 나도승마.

  • “Miscanthus nudipes subsp. wordii” (Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 3: 18, 1971) — Although this designation was proposed with the author cited and included information including the year the basionym was published, it was published without reference to the pagination of the place of the basionym.

  • “Pseudolysimachion linearifolium f. album” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 54, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 743, 2006) 흰꼬리풀.

  • “Rabdosia inflexa var. microphyllus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 695, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 169, 2006) 영도산박하.

  • “Rabdosia inflexa var. transiticus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 695, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 169, 2006) 긴잎산박하.

  • “Syringa velutina var. lactea” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흰정향나무 — The place of publication of the basionym is fully miscited.

  • “Vicia unijuga subsp. angustifolia” (Lee, Fl. Korea 390, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 620, 2006) 좁은잎나비나물.

  • “Viola mandshurica var. patrina” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 49, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 739, 2006) 흰제비꽃.

7. Designations contrary to Art. 41 Note 1

Art. 41 Note 1 states that “For the purpose of Art. 41.5, a page reference (for publications with a consecutive pagination) is a reference to the page or pages on which the basionym or replaced synonym was validly published or on which the protologue appears, but not to the pagination of the whole publication unless it is coextensive with that of the protologue.” The designations listed below were published with reference to the pagination of the entire paper in which the basionym has been published. Therefore, they were not validly published according to Art. 41 Note 1.
  • “Asarum patens” (Lee and Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 21, 2000; Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1155, 2002) 금오족도리풀 [citation: J. Jap. Bot. 71: 1–10, 1995] — A. patens (Yamaki) Y. N. Lee was validly published inadvertently by Oh et al. (End. Vasc. Pl. Korean Penins. 26, 2005), including a full and direct reference to the basionym. “Asarum patens (Yamaki) M. Kim & S. So” (Kim, Korean Endemic Pl. 56, 2017) was a later isonym.

  • “Asarum sieboldii var. mandshuricum f. misandrum” (Lee and Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 17, 2000; Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1152, 2002; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 44, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 734, 2006) 각시족도리풀 [citation: Kor. J. Plant Tax. 27: 491–499, 1997].

  • “Asarum versicolor” (Lee and Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 19, 2000; Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1153, 2002; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 44, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 735, 2006) 무 늬족도리풀 [citation: J. Jap. Bot. 71: 1–10, 1995] — A. versicolor (Yamaki) B. U. Oh (Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 38: 265, 2008) was validly published. However, A. chungbuensis (C. S. Yook & J. G. Kim) B. U. Oh (End. Vasc. Pl. Korean Penins. 24, 2005) should be considered the accepted name of this species (Jang et al., 2021).

  • “Astragalus membranaceus var. nakaianus” (Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 48, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 738, 2006) 제 주황기 [citation: Kor. J. Bot. 24: 27–30, 1981] — “A. membranaceous var. nakaianus” was first proposed by Lee et al. (Wild Plants of Jeju Island 265, 2001), but it was not validly published because, contrary to Art. 41.5, the place of valid publication for its basionym was not indicated.

  • “Pseudolysimachion linearifolium var. dilatatum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 54, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 742, 2006) 큰꼬리풀 [citation: Rep. First Sci. Exped. Manch. Sect 4, 45–93, 1936] — P. linariifolium var. dilatatum (Nakai & Kitag.) Y. N. Lee (in K. J. Kim, Gen. Vasc. Pl. Korea 878, 2007) has been validly published.

8. Designations to which Art. 41.8(a) cannot be applied

Art. 41.8(a) cannot be applied to cases where the actual basionym or replaced synonym was validly published earlier than the name or later isonym cited as such, but in the cited publication, in which all conditions for valid publication of the name as cited are fulfilled, there is no reference to the place of valid publication of the actual basionym or replaced synonym. The following nine designations were proposed with reference to a work other than that in which the basionym or replaced synonym was validly published. In these cases, the error cannot be corrected, because Art. 41.8(a) cannot be applied to the designation. Therefore, the following designations were not considered to be validly published.
  • “Aconitum napiforme f. albiflorum” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 734, 2006) 흰한라돌쩌귀 — The designation was miscited “Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996,” not “Lee, Korean J. Bot. 25: 177, 1982.”

  • “Aconitum racemulosum var. austrokoreense” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 43, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 734, 2006) 세뿔투구꽃 — This taxon name was published with a reference to “A. austrokoreense Koidz. B.M.T. 43: 369, 1934.” However, this is not the place for valid publication of the basionym. Koidzumi (Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 43: 369, 1934) reported that A. austrokoreense was published by Hatusima (1934) in Volume 5 of the Bulletin of the Kyushu Imperial University Forests.

  • “Chrysanthemum zawadskii subsp. acutilobum var. tenuisectum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 57, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 745, 2006) 포천가는잎구 절초 — The designation was miscited “Kitagawa, J.J.B. 41: 191, 1966” rather than “Kitagawa, Rep. Inst. Sci. Res. Manchoukuo 6: 129, 1942.”

  • “Cornus kousa f. minor” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 50, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 740, 2006) 준딸나무 — The designation was miscited “Nakai, Sylv. Kor. 16: 70, 1927” rather than “Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 315, 1914.”

  • “Cornus kousa f. viridis” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 50, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 740, 2006) 소리딸나무 — The designation was miscited “Nakai, Sylv. Kor. 16: 71, 1927” rather than “Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 314, 1914.”

  • “Hydrangea macrophylla f. buergeri” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 47, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 737, 2006) 꽃산수국 — The designation was miscited “Nakai, Sylv. Kor. 15: 70, 1926” rather than “Siebold, Fl. Jap. 1: 111, 1839.”

  • “Polygonatum humile var. humillimum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 59, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 747, 2006) 한라각시둥굴레 — This taxon was published with a reference to “P. hulillimum Nakai, B.M.T. 28: 518, 1914.” However, this is not the place of valid publication for the basionym. Nakai (Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 518, 1934) stated that he published the name in the journal Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis.

  • “Rabdosia serra” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 53, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 742, 2006) 자주방아풀 — This designation was miscited “Makino and Nemoto, Fl. Jap. Suppl. 630, 1936” rather than “Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 20: 454, 1875.” The name Rabdosia serra H. Hara (J. Jap. Bot. 47: 200, 1972) has been validly published previously.

  • “Stipa coreana var. japonica” (Lee, Man. Korean Grasses 200, 1966) — The designation was miscited “Honda, Journ. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo sec. 3, 3: 212–213, 1930” rather than “Hackel, Bull. Herb. Boissier 7: 647, 1899.”

9. Designations with a reference to designations than have not been validly published

The first sentence in Art. 6.10 states, “A new combination or name at new rank is a new name based on a legitimate, previously published name, which is its basionym.” The basionym must be validly published and legitimate. The following eight designations were published with reference to designations that were not validly published. Therefore, they were not validly published according to Art. 6.10 and 41.1.
  • “Asarum sieboldii f. koreanum” (Lee and Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 19, 2000; Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1153, 2002; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 44, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 735, 2006) 자주족도리풀 — The intended basionym “Asiasarum koreanum” was not validly published, because, contrary to Art. 40.7, information on the name of the herbarium where the type is being conserved was not specified.

  • “Carex ciliato-marginata f. variegata” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 749, 2006) 무늬털대사초 — This designation was proposed as a new combination based on the designation, “C. okamotoi f. variegata” (see section “Designations contrary to Art. 40.1”).

  • “Chrysanthemum zawadskii subsp. coreanum” (Lee, Korean J. Bot. 12: 47, 1969; Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 57, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 745, 2006) 제주구절초.

  • “Polemonium racemosum f. albiflorum” (Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 741, 2006) 흰꽃고비 — This designation was proposed as a new combination based on not validly published designation, “P. kiushianum f. albiflorum” (see section “Designations contrary to Art. 40.1”).

  • “Polypogon fugax f. muticus” (Lee, Man. Korean Grasses 230, 1966) — The designation was cited “P. higegaweri f. muticus” (Chung, Korean Grasses 107, 1965), but, “P. higegaweri f. muticus” was proposed with an English description contrary to Art. 39.1.

  • “Rabdosia umbrosa var. coreanus” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 53, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 742, 2006) 지리오리방풀.

  • “Sedum orbiculatum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 271, 1996) 둥근잎꿩 의비름 — Lee (1996) suggested the designation as a replacement name for this taxon, because he thought that “S. rotundifolium D. Lee” was a later homonym of S. rotundifolium Lam. (Fl. Franç. 3: 82, 1779). However, “S. orbiculatum” did not include the place of reference for its basionym. Therefore “S. orbiculatum” was not considered to be validly published (Art. 41.1). When this designation is proposed to be as a new name (“sp. nov.”), Lee (1996) cited “S. rotundifolium D. Lee” in synonymy. However, “S. rotundifolium D. Lee” was published without a Latin description or diagnosis. Chung and Kim (Korean J. Bot. 33: 6, 1990) proposed “Sedum duckbongii” as a replacement name for “S. rotundifolium,” but it was not validly published.

  • “Vicia unijuga subsp. minor” (Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996; Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 48, 2005; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 738, 2006) 애기나비나물.

10. Designations contrary to Art. 35.1

The designations listed below were not considered to be validly published, because, contrary to Art. 35.1, the name of the species to which they were assigned were not validly published at the same time or had been not validly published previously.
  • “Asarum patens var. flavi-viride” (Lee et al., Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 9, 30 Oct 2005) 청금오족도리풀 — After this designation was proposed, A. patens (Yamaki) B. U. Oh et al. (End. Vasc. Pl. Korean Penins. 26, 20 Dec 2005) was validly published inadvertently as a new combination (see section “Designations contrary to Art. 41 Note 1”).

  • “Asarum versicolor var. non-versicolor” (Lee and Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 20, 2000; Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1154, 2002) 민무늬족도리풀 — After the designation was proposed, A. versicolor (Yamaki) B. U. Oh (Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 38: 265, 2008) was validly published inadvertently (see section “Designations contrary to Art. 41 Note 1”).

  • “Aster magnus f. albiflorus” (Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 33, 1998; Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 3, 1147, 1998) 흰왕갯쑥부장 이 — “Aster magnus” was proposed contrary to Art. 40.2 (see section “Designations contrary to Art. 40.2”).

11. Designations contrary to Art. 36.1

According to Art. 36.1(b), a name is not considered to be validly published when it is not accepted by its author in the original publication, and is merely cited as a synonym. For the eleven designations listed below, Dr. Yong No Lee named himself as their author. However, they were cited as synonyms and were not considered to be validly published.
  • “Dendranthema intermedium” (Lee, Fl. Korea 820, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 320, 2006) 이화구절초.

  • “Dendranthema lineris” (Lee, Fl. Korea 820, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 320, 2006) 키큰산국.

  • “Dendranthema makinoi” (Lee, Fl. Korea 820, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 320, 2006) 마키노국화.

  • “Dendranthema zawadskii subsp. acutilobum var. alpinum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 825, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 323, 2006) 바위구절초.

  • “Dendranthema zawadskii ssp. acutilobum var. tenuisectum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 825, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 323, 2006) 포천가는잎구절초 —D. zawadzkii var. tenuisecta (Kitag.) Pak (Gen. Vasc. Pl. Korea 1026, 2007) was validly published.

  • “Dendranthema zawadskii subsp. coreanum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 825, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 323, 2006) 한라구절초.

  • “Dendranthema zawadskii subsp. latilobum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 826, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 324, 2006) 넓은잎구절초.

  • “Dendranthema zawadskii subsp. latilobum var. leiophyllum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 826, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 324, 2006) 서흥넓은잎구절초.

  • “Dendranthema zawadskii subsp. lucidum” (Lee, Fl. Korea 827, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 325, 2006) 울릉국화.

  • “Dendranthema zawadskii subsp. naktongense” (Lee, Fl. Korea 827, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 325, 2006) 낙동 구절초.

  • “Polygonum bistorta var. angustifolia” (Lee, Fl. Korea 102, 1996; Lee, New Fl. Korea 1: 270, 2006) 가는범꼬리.

List of later isonyms

An isonym is the same name based on the same type that has been published independently at different times (see Glossary). In some cases, the isonyms have been published by different authors. In this study, 13 later isonyms were found. Therefore, they do not have nomenclatural status (see Art. 6 Note 2). Earlier isonyms were examined mostly using online indices such as IPNI, The Plant List, Tropicos, and other literature. Therefore, in addition to the names listed below, the possibility of finding additional later isonyms should be considered. Here, the later isonyms proposed by Dr. Yong No Lee along with earlier isonyms and their references are listed.
  • “Chrysanthemum zawadskii subsp. acutilobum var. alpinum (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1162, 1996) 바위구절초; C. zawadzkii var. alpinum (Nakai) Kitam., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 7: 210, 1938, as “zawadskii” — “C. zawadskii var. alpinum” first appeared in Lee (Flowering Plants on Baectu Mountain 164, 297, 1991), but it was not validly published because, contrary to Art. 41.5, the place where the basionym is validly published was not indicated.

  • “Lespedeza bicolor var. melanantha (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 흑싸리; L. bicolor var. melanantha (Nakai) S. Akiyama & H. Ohba, J. Jap. Bot. 59: 191, 1984. — The designation, “L. bicolor var. melanantha” by T. B. Lee (Seoul Univ. J. (B.) 20: 144, 1969) did not cite where the basionym had been validly published.

  • “Miscanthus sinensis var. decompositus (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (J. Jap. Bot. 39: 264, 1964); M. sinensis var. decompositus (Nakai) Honda, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 3: 384, 1930.

  • “Miscanthus sinensis var. ionandros (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (J. Jap. Bot. 39: 263, 1964); M. sinensis var. ionandros (Nakai) I. C. Chung, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 45: 215, 1955.

  • “Miscanthus sinensis var. nakaianus (Honda) Y. N. Lee (J. Jap. Bot. 39: 263, 1964); M. sinensis var. nakaianus (Honda) I. C. Chung, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 45: 215, 1955.

  • “Oreorchis patens var. coreana (Finet) Y. N. Lee & K. Lee (New Fl. Korea 2: 750, 2006) 한라감자난초; O. patens var. coreana (Finet) M. Kim, Korean Endemic Pl. 217, 2004.

  • “Pseudolysimachion dahuricum (Steven) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 구와꼬리풀; P. dauricum (Steven) Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 2: 424, 1967.

  • “Pseudolysimachion kiusianum var. diamanticum (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1160, 1996) 봉래꼬리풀; P. kiusianum var. diamanticum (Nakai) T. Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 43: 409, 1968.

  • “Pseudolysimachion linearifolium var. villosulus (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 털꼬리풀; P. linariifolium var. villosulus (Nakai) T. Yamaz., Bull. Kwanak Arb. 4: 57, 1983.

  • “Pseudolysimachion nakaianum (Ohwi) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 섬꼬리풀; P. nakaianum (Ohwi) T. Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 43: 411, 1968.

  • “Pseudolysimachion pyrethrinum (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1161, 1996) 큰구와꼬리풀; P. pyrethrinum (Nakai) T. Yamaz., J. Jap. Bot. 43: 410, 1968.

  • “Salix chaenomeloides var. pilosa (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1156, 1996) 털왕버들; S. chaenomeloides var. pilosa (Nakai) Kimura, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., Ser. 4, Biol. 13: 77, 1938.

  • “Syringa velutina var. kamibayashii (Nakai) Y. N. Lee (Fl. Korea 1159, 1996) 둥근정향나무; S. velutina var. kamibayashii (Nakai) T. B. Lee, Ill. Woody Pl. Korea 333, 1966.

List of later homonyms

A homonym is a name spelled exactly as another name published for a taxon at the same rank based on a different type (see Glossary). In this review, ten later homonyms were founded. Therefore, they were considered illegitimate (see Art. 53.1). Later homonyms proposed by Dr. Yong No Lee are listed, along with earlier homonyms and their references.
  • Asarum sonunsanense var. viriluteolum f. variegatum Y. N. Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 735, 2006 무늬황록선운족도리풀; A. sonunsanense f. variegatum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 7, 2005 무늬선운족도리풀

  • Chrysosplenium japonicum var. tetrandrum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 22, 2004 사술괭이눈; C. japonicum f. tetrandrum H. Hara in Nakai & Honda, Nov. Fl. Jap. 3: 91, 1938 — Chrysoplenium japonicum var. tetrandrum Y. N. Lee was proposed as ‘stat. nov.’ and included the author (“Hara”) of the basionym. The name was published without including a valid reference to its basionym. However, all requirements for valid publication of the new taxon name are fulfilled, including a Latin description, type designation, and the name of the herbarium in which its type is conserved. Therefore, it should be treated as the name of a new variety, not the name at the new rank. It is a later homonym of C. japonicum f. tetrandrum H. Hara (see Art. 53.3).

  • Cirsium rhinoceros var. albiflorum Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 24: 29, 1981 흰바늘엉겅퀴; C. rhinoceros f. albiflorum Sakata, J. Chosen Nat. Hist. Soc. 20: 20, 1935.

  • Lamium amplexicaule f. albiflorum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 25, 2005 흰광대나물; L. amplexicaule f. albiflorum Dw. Moore, Proc. Arkansas. Acad. Sci. 1: 26, 1941.

  • Primula jesoana f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 19, 2005 흰큰앵초; P. jesoana f. albiflora Tatew. ex H. Hara, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 50: 569, 1936.

  • Pulsatilla cernua var. koreana f. flava Y. N. Lee, J. Korean Cult. Res. Inst. 10: 381, 1967 노랑할미꽃; P. cernua f. flava (Makino) Okuyama, J. Jap. Bot. 30: 42, 1955.

  • Scirpus dioicus Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh, New Fl. Korea 2: 614, 2006 동강고랭이; S. dioecus (Kunth) Boeckeler, Linnaea 36: 719, 1870 (see 5 “Neoscirpus dioicus Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh”).

  • Sium heterophyllum Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 23: 263, 1993 대암개발나물; S. heterophyllum Green, Pittonia 2: 102, 1890.

  • Tripterospermum japonicum var. albiflorum Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 24: 29, 1981 흰덩굴용담; T. japonicum f. albiflorum Honda, J. Jap. Bot. 30: 170, 1955.

  • Vicia linearifolia Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 25: 176, 1982 계 방나비나물; V. linearifolia Hook & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. 20, 1830.

Legitimate names

The 173 names listed below are validly published by Dr. Yong No Lee and are considered legitimate. This list, however, is a restrictive one. It was not fully analyzed whether new names published by Dr. Yong No Lee were later isonyms or illegitimate names, because examination of the taxonomic literature for this review was not comprehensive.
  • Aconitum napiforme var. albiflorum Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 25: 177, 1982. 흰한라돌쩌귀

  • Aconitum sibiricum f. albidiflorum Y. N. Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 734, 2006. 흰노랑투구꽃

  • Adenophora coronopifolia var. rotundiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 14, 2004. 방울잔대

  • Adenophora fusifolia Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 10, 2004. 백두모싯대

  • Adenophora fusifolia f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 13, 2004. 흰백두모싯대

  • Adenophora remotiflora f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 24: 29, 1981. 흰모시대

  • Adonis amurensis var. dissectipetalis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 4, 2005. 갈기복수초

  • Agastache rugosa f. alba Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 24, 2005. 흰배초향

  • Agropyron ciliare f. hackelianum (Honda) Y. N. Lee, Man. Korean Grasses 100, 1966. 가는개밀

  • Ajuga decumbens var. rosa Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 25: 177, 1982. 내장금난초

  • Ajuga multiflora f. rosea Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 17: 35, 1974. 붉은조개나물

  • Akebia quinata f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 6, 2006. 흰으름덩굴

  • Allium baekdusanense Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 28, 2005. 백두부추 — Recently, Kim et al. (2021) treated A. baekdusanense Y. N. Lee as a synonym of A. stenodon Nakai & Kitag.

  • Allium scorodoprasum var. multibillosum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 3, 2000. 조선마늘 — Lee (2002a) published “A. scorodoprasum var. multibulbillatum Y. N. Lee” as a name of new species. The use of the final epithet “multibulbillatum” by Lee (2002a) is a typographical error. This conclusion was reached becasue names (Lee, 2000c, 2002a) have the same description and type. Therefore, A. scorodoprasum var. multibulbillatum (Lee, 2002a) should to be corrected to become A. scorodoprasum var. multibillosum.

  • Anemone reflexa var. lineiloba Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 2, 2006. 가는회리바람꽃

  • Anthoxanthum nipponicum var. aristatum Y. N. Lee, Man. Korean Grasses 128, 1966.

  • Arisaema robustum f. variegatum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 36, 2005. 무늬넓은잎천남성

  • Arundinaria munsuensis Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 33, 1998. 문수조릿대

  • Arundinella hirta var. cylindrica Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 8: 9, 1965.

  • Asarum maculatum var. non-maculatum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 21, 2000. 민개족도리

  • Asarum maculatum f. viride Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 21, 2000. 청개족도리

  • Asarum sieboldii var. cornutum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 19, 2000. 뿔족도리풀

  • Asarum sieboldii var. mandshuricum f. viride Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 18, 2000. 영종족도리풀

  • Asarum sieboldii var. viridiluteolum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 10, 2005. 황록족도리풀

  • Asarum sonunsanense Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 6, 2005. 선운족도리풀

  • Asarum sonunsanense f. variegatum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 7, 2005. 무늬선운족도리풀

  • Asarum sonunsanense f. viriluteolum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 8, 2005. 황록선운족도리풀

  • Asarum sonunsanense var. viriluteolum (Y. N. Lee) Y. N. Lee, New Fl. Korea 2: 735, 2006. 황록선운족도리풀

  • Aster spathulifolius var. oharae (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996, as “oharai. 왕해국

  • Astragalus koraiensis Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 24: 27, 1981. 정선황기

  • Astragalus nakaianus Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 24: 28, 1981. 제주황기

  • Avena sativa var. tokushimanensis Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 8: 9, 1965.

  • Campanula punctata var. takesimana (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996. 섬초롱꽃

  • Carex siderosticta f. albomarginata Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 37, 2005, as “albimarginata. 흰무늬대사초

  • Chrysanthemum zawadzkii subsp. latilobum var. leiophyllum (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996, as “zawadskii. 서흥넓은잎구절초 — The basionym reference was erroneously cited as “B.M.T. 31: 147, 1921.” The basionym was published in Volume 35, rather than in Volume 31. The Code (see Art. 41.6) allows for the correction of this error in the basionym citation.

  • Chrysanthemum zawadzkii subsp. lucidum (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 12: 47, 1969, as “zawadskii. 울릉국화 — The author and place of valid publication for the basionym were clearly indicated, but the basionym was erroneously cited as “C. coreanum,” rather than “C. lucidum.” This citation error does not prevent valid publication of this new combination (see Art. 41.6).

  • Chrysanthemum zawadzkii subsp. naktongense (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 12: 47, 1969, as “zawadskii.

  • Chrysanthemum zawadzkii subsp. yezoense (F. Maek.) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1162, 1996, as “zawadskii. 남구절초 — This name was based on C. arcticum var. yezoense F. Maek. (Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 8: 14, 1921), rather than C. yezoense F. Maek (Trans. Sapporo Nat. Hist. Soc. 8: 12, 1921).

  • Cirsium setidens var. pinnatifolium Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 8, 2004. 깃잎고려엉겅퀴

  • Clematis brachyura var. hexasepala Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 25: 177, 1982. 조령으아리

  • Clematis taeguensis Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 25: 175, 1982. 대구으아리

  • Commelina minor Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh, Korean J. Bot. 24: 28, 1981. 애기닭의장풀

  • Corydalis baekunnensis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 24, 2004. 백운현호색

  • Corydalis fumariifolia f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 26, 2004, as “fumariaefolia. 흰애기현호색

  • Corydalis grandicalyx f. purpurascens Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 5, 2003. 자주갈퀴현호색

  • Corydalis wandoensis Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 26, 1998. 완도현호색

  • Cremastra appendiculata f. albiflora B. Kill & Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 6, 2004. 흰약난초

  • Cypripedium agnicapitatum Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 5, 1170, 2002 [15 Sep 2002]. 양머리복주머니란 — Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020), IPNI (2021), and Tropicos (2021) incorrectly cited the place of valid publication for the name as being “Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 28, 2002 [10 Oct 2002].”

  • Cypripedium guttatum f. punicum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 63, 2005. 분홍털복주머니란

  • Cypripedium morinanthum Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 5, 1170, 2002 [15 Sep 2002]. 자주복주머니란 — Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020), IPNI (2021), and Tropicos (2021) incorrectly cited the place of valid publication for the name as being “Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 31, 2002 [10 Oct 2002].”

  • Cypripedium neoparviflorum Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 5, 1171, 2002 [15 Sep 2002]. 미색복주머니란 — Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020), IPNI (2021), and Tropicos (2021) incorrectly cited the place of valid publication for the name as being “Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 31, 2002 [10 Oct 2002].”

  • Cypripedium roseum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 32, 2002. 장미빛복주머니란

  • Cypripedium sinapoides Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 30, 2002. 겨자복주머니란

  • Dianthus chinensis var. morii f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 28, 2004. 흰난쟁이패랭이꽃

  • Dianthus chinensis var. serpens Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 29, 2004. 누운패랭이꽃

  • Disporum ovale var. albiflorum Y. N. Lee & N. S. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 9: 79, 1979. 흰금강애기나리

  • Disporum ovale var. tamnanum Y. N. Lee & N. S. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 14: 168, 1984. 한라애기나리

  • Duchesnea indica var. albicarpa Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 21, 2004. 흰뱀딸기

  • Elsholtzia hallasanensis Y. N. Lee, Alp. Fl. Korea 328, 2000 [25 Apr 2000]. 한라꽃향유 — Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020), IPNI (2021), and Tropicos (2021) incorrectly cited the place of valid publication for the name as being “Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 51, 2000 [10 May 2000].”

  • Elsholtzia hallasanensis f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 53, 2005. 흰한라꽃향유

  • Elsholtzia splendens f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 31, 1998. 흰꽃향유

  • Elsholtzia splendens f. roseola Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 50, 2000. 분홍꽃향유

  • Elsholtzia springia Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 7: 4, 2007. 봄꽃향유

  • Epipactis papillosa var. imkoeensis Y. N. Lee & K. Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 5, 1171, 2002 [15 Sep 2002]. 임계청닭의난초 — Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020), IPNI (2021), and Tropicos (2021) incorrectly cited the place of valid publication for the name as being “Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 38, 2002 [10 Oct 2002].”

  • Epipogium aphyllum f. albiflorum Y. N. Lee & K. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 5, 2004, as “Epipogon aphyllym f. albiflora. 흰호설란

  • Eranthis byunsanensis f. disepalis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 7: 13, 2007. 겹변산바람꽃

  • Eranthis pinnatifida f. purpurea Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 18, 2004. 분홍변산바람꽃

  • Euonymus sieboldianus f. albicarpus Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 12, 2005, as “E. sieboldiana f. albicarpa. 흰 참빗살나무

  • Euphorbia ebracteolata f. magna Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 28, 1998. 설악대극

  • Fraxinus rhynchophylla var. densata (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1159, 1996. 광릉물푸레

  • Goodyera rosulacea Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 2, 2004. 로젯사철란

  • Habenaria chejuensis Y. N. Lee & K. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 34, 1998. 제주방울란

  • Hemarthria compressa var. japonica (Hack.) Y. N. Lee, Man. Korean Grasses 77, 1966. 쇠치기풀

  • Hepatica asiatica var. yuseongii Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 7: 8, 2007. 유성노루귀

  • Heteropappus hispidus subsp. arenarius f. albiflorus Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 9, 2006. 흰갯쑥부쟁이 — The taxon name “Heteropappus hispidus f. albiflora” (흰개쑥부 쟁이) was proposed by Lee (Fl. Korea 1162, 1996). However, the designation was not considered to be validly published, because, contrary to 40.1, it was described without it being indicated that it is a type (see “Designations contrary to Art. 40.1”).

  • Heteropappus hispidus subsp. arenarius f. purpurascens Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 10, 2006. 홍자갯쑥부쟁이

  • Hibiscus syriacus var. micranthus Y. N. Lee & K. B. Yim, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 22: 8, 1992. 애기무궁화

  • Hydrangea macrophylla f. fertilis (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996. 탐라산수국

  • Hylomecon hylomeconoides (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, J. Korean Res. Inst. Better Living 11: 134, 1973. 피나물

  • Hylomecon hylomeconoides var. dissectifolia Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 27, 2004, as “dissectifolium. 갈래피나물

  • Hylomecon vernalis f. albilutescens Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 6, 2003. 미색노랑매미꽃

  • Impatiens kojeensis Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 28, 1998. 거제물봉선

  • Iris neoensata Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 30, 2005, as “neo-ensata.” 신꽃창포

  • Iris neosetosa Y. N. Lee, Alp. Fl. Korea, ed. 2, 477, 2001. 신 부채붓꽃 — As mentioned above, this name did not appear in the first edition of the Alpine Flowers of Korea (Lee, 2000a).

  • Iris rossii f. alba Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 17: 35, 1974. 흰 각씨붓꽃

  • Iris rossii f. purpurascens Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 35, 2005. 분홍각시붓꽃

  • Iris sanguinea var. coronalis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 32, 2005. 한국붓꽃

  • Iris sanguinea f. sericiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 34, 2005. 비단붓꽃

  • Ischaemum anthephoroides f. coreanum (Nakai ex Honda) Y. N. Lee, Man. Korean Grasses 74, 1966.

  • Larix sibirica var. hybrida Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 22, 2003. 잡종잎갈나무

  • Lilium amabile var. flavum Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 5, 1169, 2002 [15 Sep 2002]. 노랑털중나리 — Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020), IPNI (2021), and Tropicos (2021) incorrectly cited the place of valid publication for the name as being “Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 9, 2002 [10 Oct 2002].”

  • Lilium callosum var. flavum Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 9, 2002 [10 Oct 2002]. 노랑땅나리 — The taxon name “L. callosum var. flavum” was first proposed by Lee (Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1165, 15 Jan 2002). This was, however, not validly published then, because, contrary to Art. 40.1, there was no indication that it was a type. Lee (Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 9, 10 Oct 2002) later validly published L. callosum var. flavum with both a Latin diagnosis and indication of it being a type.

  • Lilium tsingtauense f. carneum (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1163, 1996. 지리하늘말나리

  • Lycoris sanguinea var. koreana f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 7, 2004. 흰백양꽃

  • Lythrum salicaria f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 18, 2005. 흰털부처꽃

  • Mazus pumilus f. albiflorus Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 21, 2005. 흰주름잎

  • Miscanthus changii Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 115, 1964.

  • Miscanthus chejuensis Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 17: 85, 1974. 금억새

  • Miscanthus condensatus var. intermedius Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 117, 1964.

  • Miscanthus condensatus var. miser Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 293, 1964.

  • Miscanthus condensatus var. boninensis (Nakai ex Honda) Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 293, 1964. — The basionym reference was erroneously cited as being in “Tokyo Bot. Mag. 13, 130 (1928).” However, the basionym was published in volume 42 rather than in volume 13.

  • Miscanthus condensatus var. purpurascens Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 19, 2006.

  • Miscanthus floridulus var. intermedius Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 121, 1964.

  • Miscanthus floridulus var. malayanus Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 120, 1964.

  • Miscanthus floridulus var. papillatus Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 120, 1964.

  • Miscanthus floridulus var. ryukyuensis (Honda) Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 291, 1964. — The basionym reference was erroneously cited as being in “Tokyo Bot. Mag. 31: 58–59, 1937.” However, the basionym was published in Volume 51 rather than in volume 31.

  • Miscanthus floridulus var. taiwanensis Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 121, 1964.

  • Miscanthus latissimus Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 13, 2006. 장수억새

  • Miscanthus nudipes subsp. taylorii (Bor) Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 3: 18, 1971.

  • Miscanthus oligostachyus var. intermedius (Honda) Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 295, 1964. — The basionym reference was erroneously cited as being in “Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 27: 296, 1933.” However, the basionym was published in volume 47 rather than in volume 27.

  • Miscanthus oligostachyus var. shinanoensis Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 117, 1964.

  • Miscanthus sacchariflorus var. gracilis Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 123, 1964.

  • Miscanthus sacchariflorus f. purpurascens Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 3: 18, 1971.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. albiflorus Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 23, 10 Oct 2002. 흰억새 — The taxon name “M. sinensis var. albiflorus” was first proposed by Lee (Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1166, 15 Jan 2002). However, it was not validly published then, because, contrary to Art. 40.1, there was no indication that it was a type. Lee (Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 23, 10 Oct 2002) later validly published M. sinensis var. albiflorus including both a Latin diagnosis and indication that it is a type.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. chejuensis (Y. N. Lee) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1164, 1996. 금억새

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. flavidus (Honda) Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 264, 1964.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. kanehirae (Honda) Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 264, 1964. — The basionym reference was erroneously cited as being the “Tokyo Bot. Mag. 12: 132, 1928.” However, the basionym was published in volume 42 rather than in volume 12.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. longiaxis Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 118, 1964.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. matsudae (Honda) Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 263, 1964.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. pycnocephalus (Honda) Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 262, 1964. — The basionym reference was erroneously cited as being in “Tokyo Bot. Mag. 13: 131, 1928.” The basionym was published in volume 42 rather than in volume 13.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. sunanensis Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 119, 1964.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. transmorrisonensis (Hayata) Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 264, 1964.

  • Miscanthus sinensis var. viridis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 16, 2006. 연두억새

  • Neoscirpus Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 24, 2006.

  • Neoscirpus dioicus Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 25, 2006. 동강고랭이 — This name was published with a full and direct reference to Scirpus dioicus Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh. However, S. dioicus is illegitimate because it is a later homonym of S. dioecus (Kunth) Boeckeler. Neoscirpus dioicus was therefore validly published as a replacement name (Art. 6.11), with S. dioicus its replaced synomym. The authors of the name N. dioicus should be cited as “Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh” rather than “(Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh) Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh.” According to a molecular phylogenetic study, Jung and Choi (2010) suggested N. dioicus into the genus Trichophorum Pers. Son et al. (2019) published T. polygamum D. C. Son & K. S. Chang (Phytotaxa 418: 115, 2019) as a replacement name for N. dioicus.

  • Neottia hypocastanoptica Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 4, 1167, 2002. 한라새둥지란 — “N. hypocastanoptica” was first proposed by Lee et al. (Wild Plants of Jeju Island 610, 2001). This, however, was not considered to be validly published at that time because, contrary to Art. 40.7, the name of the herbarium in which the type was conserved was not specified.

  • Oplismenus undulatifolius f. elongatus (Honda) Y. N. Lee, Man. Korean Grasses 30, 1966.

  • Oreorchis patens subsp. coreana (Finet) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1164, 1996. 한라감자난초 — The basionym reference was erroneously cited as being in “Bull. Soc. Bot. France IV 337, 1908.” The basionym was published in volume 55 rather than in volume IV.

  • Orobanche coerulescens f. alba Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 27, 2005. 흰초종용

  • Orostachys chongsunensis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 36, 2000. 정선바위솔

  • Orostachys iwarenge f. magna Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 34, 2000, as “magnus.” 울릉연화바위솔 — The gender of the genus Orostachys Fisch. is feminine, despite Lee and Lee (2000) assigning it as being masculine in gender. This is because Orostachys is composed with inclusion of the generic name Stachys L., which is treated as feminine by tradition (see Art. 62 Ex. 1).

  • Orostachys latielliptica Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 35, 2000, as “latiellipticus.” 포천바위솔

  • Orostachys margaritifolia Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 36, 2000, as “margaritifolius.” 진주바위솔

  • Orostachys ramosa Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 35, 2000, as “ramosus.” 가지바위솔

  • Paspalum hallasanense Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 7: 10, 2007. 한라참새피

  • Pedicularis verticillata var. hallaisanensis (Hurus.) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1161, 1996. 한라송이풀

  • Pennisetum alopecuroides var. albiflorum Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea, ed. 5, 1169, 15 Sep 2002. 흰수크령 — Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020) and IPNI (2021) incorrectly cited the place of valid publication for the name as being the “Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 2: 23, 10 Oct 2002.”

  • Pinus pumila f. auriamentata Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 7: 14, 2007. 황금눈잣나무

  • Polypogon fugax f. demissus (Steud.) Y. N. Lee, Man. Korean Grasses 230, 1966.

  • Potentilla fragarioides var. major f. bipetala Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 11, 2005. 겹양지꽃 — Lee (2006a) erroneously cited this name as “P. fragarioides f. duplexa Y. N. Lee.”

  • Prunus linearipetala Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 25: 176, 1982, as “linearipetalus.” 별벗나무

  • Pseudolysimachion pusanensis (Y. N. Lee) Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 55, 2005. 부산꼬리풀

  • Pulsatilla cernua var. koreana (Y. Yabe ex Nakai) Y. N. Lee, J. Korean Cult. Res. Inst. 10: 381, 1967. — Lee (1967b) did not cite the basionym, but instead cited the “Cited Bibliography” section (p. 382) of the article. A full and direct reference is given to the basionym author Nakai’s publication as “Nakai T. (1909): Fl. Kor. 1: 19”. Therefore, this was indicated as being basionym. These pre-2007 new combinations, which lack basionym citations, but have a precise bibliography of the basionyms, Art. 41 Ex. 13, and the new combination P. cernua var. koreana have been validly published (IPNI, 2021). Pulsatilla cernua var. koreana (Y. Yabe ex Nakai) U. C. La (R. J. Im et al., Fl. Coreana 2: 212, 1996) was a later isonym.

  • Pulsatilla tongkangensis Y. N. Lee & T. C. Lee, Alp. Fl. Korea 90, 25 Apr 2000. 동강할미꽃 — As previously mentioned, this name was validly published in the first edition of the Alpine Flowers of Korea (Lee, 2000a). Lee (2000b), Kim (2004, 2017), Korea National Arboretum (2017, 2020), Park et al. (2018), National Institute of Biological Resources (2019), and IPNI (2021) incorrectly cited the place of valid publication for the name as being the “Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 1: 11, 10 May 2000.”

  • Pulsatilla tongkangensis f. alba Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 2, 2005. 흰동강할미꽃

  • Pulsatilla tongkangensis f. disepala Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 3, 2006. 겹동강할미꽃

  • Pulsatilla tongkangensis f. longisepala Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 42, 2005. 긴동강할미꽃

  • Pulsatilla tongkangensis f. rosa Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 2, 2005. 분홍동강할미꽃

  • Pyrus ussuriensis var. vilis (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996, as “viris.” 합실리

  • Rabdosia umbrosa var. chiisanensis (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1160, 1996. 둥근오리방풀 — The basionym reference was erroneously cited as being “B.M.T. 48: 786, 1934.” The basionym was published on page 788 rather than page 786.

  • Ranunculus franchetii var. hallasanensis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 7: 2, 2007. 한라왜미나리아재비

  • Ranunculus quelpaertensis var. albiflorus Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 25: 177, 1982. 흰왜젓가락나물

  • Sasa chiisanensis (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1164, 1996. 갓대 — “Sasa chiisanensis” first appears in Lee (Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fauna and Flora 18: 141, 1976) as a new combination, but it was published without the place of valid publication of the basionym.

  • Saussurea tomentosa f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 9, 2004. 흰두메분취

  • Scilla scilloides f. albida Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Bot. 17: 85, 1974. 흰무릇 — Lee (2005, 2007, 2010) erroneously cited this name as being “S. scilloides f. albiflora Y. N. Lee.”

  • Scilla scilloides f. albiflora (Satake) Satake & Okuyama has been validly published by Okuyama (J. Jap. Bot. 30: 42, 1955).

  • Scopolia kwangdokensis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 22, 2005. 광덕미치광이풀

  • Scopolia lutescens Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 23: 264, 1993. 노랑미치광이풀

  • Scopolia neoparviflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 7: 6, 2007. 새미치광이풀

  • Scopolia parviflora var. grandiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 7, 2006. 왕방울미치광이풀

  • Sedum latiovalifolium Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 22: 8, 1992. 태백기린초

  • Setaria viridis var. angustifolia Y. N. Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 40: 370, 1965.

  • Smilacina japonica var. lutecarpa Y. N. Lee, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 23: 264, 1993, as “lute-carpa.” 황금지장보살

  • Strobilanthes oligantha f. alba Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 15, 2004. 흰방울꽃

  • Swertia wilfordii f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 20, 2005. 흰큰잎쓴풀

  • Veronica pusanensis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 16, 2004. 부산꼬리풀

  • Viola albida var. rugata Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 16, 2005. 오골제비꽃

  • Viola albida f. viridis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 4, 2006. 초록태백제비꽃

  • Viola chejuensis Y. N. Lee & Y. C. Oh, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 13, 2005. 제주제비꽃

  • Viola dissecta var. chaerophylloides f. viridis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 6: 5, 2006. 녹색남산제비꽃

  • Viola palatina Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 15, 2005. 창덕제비꽃

  • Viola wansanensis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 4: 19, 2004. 완산제비꽃

  • Viola woosanensis Y. N. Lee & J. Kim, Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 28: 30, 1998. 우산제비꽃

  • Wasabia japonica var. koreana (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1158, 1996. 고추냉이

Names that further studies are needed

The following six designations or names were proposed as new names by Dr. Yong No Lee, but decisions regarding their nomenclatural status have been put on hold, because the related references could not be found or investigation of the types were required.

1. Names requiring examination of their references

  • Asarum intermedium Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 5, 2005. 잡선운족도리풀 — This name was validly published. However, A. intermedium (C. A. Mey. ex Domin) Grossh. (Flora Kavkaza 2: 36, 1930) has been published. The decision of whether this name published by Lee (2005) is a later homonym has been deferred, because the protologue of Grossheim could not be examined.

  • Larix sibirica var. viridis Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 3: 20, 2003. 청시베리아잎갈나무 — This name was validly published. However, it is likey to be a later homonym of L. sibirica var. viridis R. E. Schroed. (Ukaz. Rast. Dendrol. Sada Moskovsk. Sel’skokhoz. Inst. 14, 1899). This could not be confirmed without checking the protologue by Schroeder.

  • Taxus cuspidata var. caespitosa (Nakai) Y. N. Lee, Fl. Korea 1156, 1996. 눈주목 — This name is thought to be a later homonym of T. cuspidata var. caespitosa (Nakai) Q. L. Wang (Clavis Pl. Chinae Bor.-Or., ed. 2, 73, 1995). However, this could not be confirmed without examining the protologue by Wang.

  • Vitex rotundifolia f. albiflora Y. N. Lee, Bull. Korea Pl. Res. 5: 26, 2005. 흰순비기나무 — This name was validly published. However, it seems that it is a later homonym of V. rotundifolia f. albiflora S. S. Ying (Coloured Illustr. Pl. Taiwan 1: 504, 1987). This could not be confirmed without checking the protologue by Wang.

2. Names that require the type to be examined

  • “Iris odaesanensis” (Lee, Korean J. Bot. 17: 33, 1974) 노랑 무늬붓꽃 — In this review, determination of the nomenclatural status of I. odaesanensis Y. N. Lee was deferred. It was proposed as a name for a new species by Lee (1974) and treated as being the correct name in several taxonomic literature (Sim, 2000, 2018; Yutang et al., 2000; Park et al., 2002; Sim and Kim, 2002; Sim et al., 2002; Kim, 2004, 2017; Lee and Park, 2013; Korea National Arboretum, 2017, 2020; National Institute of Biological Resources, 2019). The protologue of I. odaesanensis cited collector’s names (“Lee, Yong No, Yong Cha Oh & G.B. Snyder”), a collection date (“May-7, 1973”), and a locality (“Hab.: Korea, Mt. Odaesan and Hyongkori west side of Daekwanryon Pass”). However, it is unclear whether I. odaesanensis was described from one gathering (“Mt. Odaesan and Hyongkori west side of Daekwanryon Pass”) or two different gatherings (“Mt. Odaesan” and “Hyongkori west side of Daekwanryon Pass”). If it was the former and only one gathering took place, it was validly published. If more than one gathering occurred, then it was not validly published. It is necessary to examine the type specimen for the nomenclatural status of I. odaesanensis to be determined.

  • “Miscanthus sinensis var. keumunensis” (Lee, J. Jap. Bot. 39: 119, 1964) — This name was published with the type information “Hab. Tongdo, Keumundo, Korea, leg. No. 10754, 10756, 1028.” This type information has multiple collection numbers recorded. However, this does not mean that type specimens from different gathering have been designated as type (see Art. 8 Note 1). It is necessary to examine the type specimen to determine the nomenclatural status of M. sinensis var. keumunensis.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Dr. Kanchi N. Gandhi (GH) for nomenclatural advice. This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) and, funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR202107101).

NOTES

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Table 1.
Publication date of the books by Yong No Lee and the journal Bulletin of Korea Plant Research.
Title of publication Publication date
Manual of the Korean Grasses Jan 1966
Flowering Plants on Baectu-Mountain 20 Jan 1991
Flora of Korea 30 Oct 1996
Flora of Korea, ed. 2 20 Mar 1997
Flora of Korea, ed. 3 30 Sep 1998
Alpine Flowers of Korea 25 Apr 2000
Bulletin of Korea Plant Research, Vol. 1 10 May 2000
Alpine Flowers of Korea, ed. 2 30 Sep 2001
Wild Plants of Jeju Island 23 Nov 2001
Flora of Korea, ed. 4 15 Jan 2002
Flora of Korea, ed. 5 15 Sep 2002
Bulletin of Korea Plant Research, Vol. 2 10 Oct 2002
Bulletin of Korea Plant Research, Vol. 3 10 Dec 2003
Flora of Korea, ed. 6 25 May 2004
Bulletin of Korea Plant Research, Vol. 4 20 Dec 2004
Bulletin of Korea Plant Research, Vol. 5 30 Oct 2005
New Flora of Korea 15 Sep 2006
Bulletin of Korea Plant Research, Vol. 6 20 Dec 2006
New Flora of Korea, ed. 2 15 Sep 2007
Bulletin of Korea Plant Research, Vol. 7 30 Oct 2007
New Flora of Korea, ed. 3 15 Jun 2010
Table 2.
Paginations of the section “New plant names on Korea” and the section “Supplement” in each edition of the Flora of Korea.
Edition of Flora of Korea Pagination

New plant names on Korea Supplement

1 2 3
1st edition 1156–1164 - - -
2nd edition 1156–1164 - - -
3rd edition 1164–1172 1142–1149 - -
4th edition 1182–1190 1142–1149 1150–1167 -
5th edition 1186–1194 1142–1149 1150–1167 1168–1171
6th edition 1186–1194 1142–1149 1150–1167 1168–1171

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APPENDICES

Appendix 1.

List of books and papers by Y. N. Lee examined in this review (listed in chronological order)

Books

  • Lee, Y. N. 1966. Manual of the Korean Grasses. Ewha Womans University Press, Seoul, 300 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1976. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fauna and Flora. Vol. 18. Flowering Plants. Ministry of Education, Seoul, 893 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1991. Flowering Plants on Baectu-Mountain. Hangilsa, Seoul. 317 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1996. Flora of Korea. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, 1247 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1997. Flora of Korea. 2nd ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, 1269 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1998. Flora of Korea. 3rd ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, 1246 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2000. Alpine Flowers of Korea. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul. 557 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2001. Alpine Flowers of Korea. 2nd ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd, Seoul, 557 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N., K. S. Lee and Y. M. Sin. 2001. Wild Plants of Jeju Island. Yeomiji Botanical Garden, Jeju. 669 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2002. Flora of Korea. 4th ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, 1265 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2002. Flora of Korea. 5th ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, 1269 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Flora of Korea. 6th ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, 1269 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2006. New Flora of Korea. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, Vol. 1 . 975 pp, Vol. 2. 885 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2007. New Flora of Korea. 2nd ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, Vol. 1. 975 pp, Vol. 2. 885 pp.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2010. New Flora of Korea. 3rd ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd., Seoul, Vol. 1. 975 pp, Vol. 2. 885 pp.

Papers in the journals other than the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research

  • Lee, Y. N. 1957. On new variety of Orchidaceae. Korean Journal of Botany 2: 48.

  • Lee, Y. N. and J. A. Do. 1959. Comparative study of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge and Astragalus hallasanensis Yong-No Lee. The Journal of Korean Cultural Research Institute 1: 359–366.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1964. Taxonomic studies on the genus Miscanthus (1). New species and varieties. Journal of Japanese Botany 39: 115–123.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1964. Taxonomic studies on the genus Miscanthus (4). Relationships among the section, subsection and species. Part 2 Enumeration of species and varieties. Journal of Japanese Botany 39: 257–265.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1964. Taxonomic studies on the genus Miscanthus (5). Relationships among the section, subsection and species. Part 3 Enumeration of species and varieties. Journal of Japanese Botany 39: 289–298.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1965. Two new varieties of Gramineae from Japan. Korean Journal of Botany 8: 33–35.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1965. A new variety of Setaria viridis. Journal of Japanese Botany 40: 370–371.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1967. A comparative study on the Korean and Manchurian Pulsatilla. The Journal of Korean Cultural Research Institute 10: 379–382.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1969. A cytotaxonomic study on Chrysanthemum zawadskii complex in Korea. (2) Polyploidy. Korean Journal of Botany 12: 35–48.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1971. Notes on type specimens of Miscanthus in Kew Herbarium. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 3: 17–18.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1973. Taxonomic study on genus Hylomecon. Journal of Korean Research Institute for Better Living 11: 127–136.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1974. New taxa on Korean Flora (1). Korean Journal of Botany 17: 33–35.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1974. New taxa on Korean Flora (2). Korean Journal of Botany 17: 84–86.

  • Lee, N.-S. 1979. A taxonomic study of the genus Disporum in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 9: 67–87.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1981. New taxa of Korean flora (3). Korean Journal of Botany 24: 27–30.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1982. New taxa of Korean flora (4). Korean Journal of Botany 25: 175–180.

  • Lee, N. S. and Y. N. Lee. 1984. Distribution and morphological variation of Disporum ovale (Liliaceae). Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 14: 161–168.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1992. New taxa on Korean flora (4). Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 22: 7–11.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1993. New taxa on Korean flora (5). Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 23: 263–268.

  • Lee, Y. N. 1998. New taxa on Korean flora (6). Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 28: 25–39.

Papers in the volume 1 of the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research

  • Lee, Y. N. 2000. What is Korean garlic?. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 1: 2–8.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2000. Pulsatilla in Korea. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 1: 9–15.

  • Lee, Y. N. and J. Y. Lee. 2000. Asarum in Korea. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 1: 16–30.

  • Lee, Y. N. and K. A Lee. 2000. Orostachys in Korea. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 1: 31–47.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2000. Elsholtzia in Korea. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 1: 48–54.

Papers in the volume 2 of the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research

  • Lee, Y. N. 2002. Schizandra viridicarpa Y. Lee, sp. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 2: 3.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2002. A variety and new locations of Hylomecon vernalis Maximowicz. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 2: 5–6.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2002. Family Liliaceae. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 2: 9.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2002. Genus Iris in Korea. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 2: 10–22.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2002. Family Gramineae. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 2: 23–24.

  • Lee, Y. N., K. S. Lee and Y. S. Kim. 2002. Family Orchidaceae. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 2: 25–39.

Papers in the volume 3 of the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research

  • Lee, Y. N. 2003. A new taxon of Ranunculaceae. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 3: 2–4.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2003. Two new taxa of Papaveraceae. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 3: 5–6.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2003. Two taxa of Fragaria in Korea. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 3: 7–14.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2003. Abelia in Korea. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 3: 15–19.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2003. Two new varieties of Larix sibirica Ledb. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 3: 20–23.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2003. Two new forms of Pseudolysimachion rotundum (Nakai) Yamazaki var. subintegrum (Nakai) Yamazaki. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 3: 24–25.

Papers in the volume 4 of the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Goodyera rosulaceae Y. Lee sp. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 2–4.

  • Lee, Y. N. and G. S. Lee. 2004. Epipogon aphyllum (F.W.Schmidt) Swartz for. albiflora Y. Lee et K Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 5.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Cremastra appendiculata (D. Don) Makino for. albiflora B. Kill & Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 6.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Lycoris sanguinea Maximowicz var. koreana (Nakai) T. Koyama for. albiflora Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 7.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2004. Cirsium setidens (Dunn) Nakai var. pinnatifolium Y. Lee var. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 8.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Saussurea tomentosa Komarov for. albiflora Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 9.

  • Lee, Y. N. and D. H. Lee. 2004. Adenophora fusifolia Y. Lee sp. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 10–12.

  • Lee, Y. N. and D. H. Lee. 2004. Adenophora fusifolia Y. Lee for. albiflora Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 13.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Adenophora coronopifolia (Fisch.) Fischer var. rotundiflora Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 14.

  • Lee, Y. N., S. H. Moon and Y. M. Shin. 2004. Strobilanthes oligantha Miquel for. alba Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 15.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Veronica pusanensis Y. Lee sp. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 16–17.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Eranthis pinnatifida Maximowicz for. purpurea Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 18.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2004. Viola wansanensis Y. Lee sp. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 19–20.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke var. albicarpa Y. Lee var. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 21.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Chrysosplenium japonicum (Maxim.) Makino var. tetrandrum (Hara) Y. Lee stat. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 22–23.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Corydalis baekunnensis Y. Lee sp. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 24–25.

  • Lee, Y. N. and S. H. Moon. 2004. Corydalis fumariaefolia Maximowicz for. albiflora Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 26.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Hylomecon hylomeconoides (Nakai) Y. Lee var. dissectifolium Y. Lee var. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 27.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2004. Dianthus chinensis Linné var. morrii Y. C. Chu for. albiflora Y. Lee for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 28.

  • Lee, Y. N. and G. H. Lee. 2004. Dianthus chinensis Linné var. serpens Y. Lee var. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 29.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2004. Adonis amurensis Regel et Radde ssp. multiflora (Nishi. et Ito.) Y. Lee stat. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 36.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. M. Shin. 2004. Adonis amurensis Regel et Radde ssp. multiflora (Nishi.) Y. Lee for. argentatus Y. Lee stat. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 37.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2004. Adonis amurensis Regel et Radde var. pseudoamurensis (Wang) Y. Lee stat. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 4: 38.

Papers in the volume 5 of the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2005. Two new forms of Pulsatilla tongkangensis Y. Lee et T. C. Lee. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 2–3.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2005. A new variety of Adonis amurensis Regel et Radde. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 4.

  • Lee, Y. N., J. U. Sik and Y. S. Kim. 2005. Two new species, two new varieties and two new forms of Asarum. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 5–10.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2005. A new form of Potentilla fragarioides Linné var. major Maximowicz. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 11.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2005. A new form of Euonymus sieboldiana Blume. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 12.

  • Lee, Y. N., Y. Oh and Y. S. Kim. 2005. Two new species and a new variety of Viola. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 13–17.

  • Lee, Y. N. and D. H. Lee. 2005. A new form of Lythrum salicaria Linné. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 18.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2005. A new form of Primula jesoana Miquel. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 19.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2005. A new form of Swertia wilfordii Kerner. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 20.

  • Lee, Y. N. and D. H. Lee. 2005. A new form of Mazus pumilus (Burum.) Van Steenis. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 21.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2005. A new species of Scopolia. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 22–23.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2005. Two new taxa of Labiatae. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 24–25.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2005. A new form of Vitex rotundifolia Linné f. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 26.

  • Lee, Y. N. and J. H. Kim. 2005. A new form of Orobanche coerulescens Stephan. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 27.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2005. A new species of Allium. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 28–29.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2005. A new species, a new variety and two new forms of Iris. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 30–35.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2005. A new form of Arisaema robustum (Engler) Nakai. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 36.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2005. A new form of Carex siderosticta Hance. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 37.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2005. Appendix - New plant names on Flora of Korea (revised new edition). Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 5: 40–64.

Papers in the volume 6 of the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2006. A new variety of Anemone reflexa Stephan & Willdenow. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 6: 2.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2006. A new form of Pulsatilla tongkangensis Y. Lee et T. C. Lee. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 6: 3.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2006. Two new forms of Viola. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 6: 4–5.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. M. Shin. 2006. A new form of Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decaisne. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 6: 6.

  • Lee, Y. N. and D. H. Lee. 2006. A new variety of Scopolia parviflora Nakai. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 6: 7.

  • Lee, Y. N. and D. H. Lee. 2006. Two new forms of Heteropappus hispidus (Thunb.) Lessing ssp. arenarius (Kitam.) Kitamura. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 6: 8–10.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2006. A new species and two new varieties of Miscanthus. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 6: 11–23.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. C. Oh. 2006. A new genus and a new species of Cyperaceae. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 6: 24–30.

Papers in the volume 7 of the Bulletin of Korea Plant Research

  • Lee, Y. N. 2007. Ranunculus franchetii H. Boissieu var. hallasanensis Y. Lee, var. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 7: 2–3.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. M. Shin. 2007. Elsholtzia springia Y. Lee, sp. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 7: 4–5.

  • Lee, Y. N. and Y. S. Kim. 2007. Scopolia neoparviflora Y. Lee, sp. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 7: 6–7.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2007. Hepatica asiatica Nakai var. yuseongii Y. Lee, var. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 7: 8–9.

  • Lee, Y. N. and D. H. Lee. 2007. Paspalum hallasanense Y. Lee. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 7: 10–12.

  • Lee, Y. N. and C. S. Lee. 2007. Eranthis byunsanensis B. Sun for. disepalis Y. Lee, for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 7: 13.

  • Lee, Y. N. 2007. Pinus pumila Regel for. auriamentata Y. Lee, for. nov. Bulletin of Korea Plant Research 7: 14.

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