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Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 46(1); 2016 > Article
20세기 초에 채집된 한반도 고표본 (I)

적 요

우리나라 고표본의 대부분은 한국전쟁 중 소실되어서 국내에 남아 있지 않으나 도쿄대학교의 표본관에는 이들 표본의 중복표본(duplicate)들이 잘 보존되어 있다. 본 연구에서는 도쿄대학교 표본관에 수장되어 있는 중복표본을 조사하여 미동정 표본을 동정하였으며, 우리나라 초기 분류학 역사에 대한 기초적인 정보를 제공하고자 이들의 목록을 작성하였다. 이들 중복표본의 한 세트를 도쿄대학교 표본관의 기증을 통해 확보하여 전남대 표본관과 국립생물자원관 표본관에 수장하였다.

Abstract

Many of the historic plant specimens collected from the Korean Peninsula in the early 20th century deposited in herbaria in Korea were destroyed during the Korean War. However, duplicates of the specimens deposited in the Herbarium of the University of Tokyo (TI) remained unharmed. We examined historic plant specimens, identified undetermined specimens, and made a list to provide fundamental information on the early taxonomic history of Korea. One set of duplicate specimens was donated by TI and deposited into the Chonnam National University herbarium (CNU) and into the herbarium of the National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (KB).

Biological materials are very important components in the field of life sciences. The Recognition of the importance of biological materials in advanced countries established international regulations, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing (ABS). Strong competition to claim exclusive rights to biological resources among countries has led to efforts by every country to protect its biological resources and to develop strategies by which to enforce the regulations. Under these international circumstances, basic information about endemic plants is a prerequisite for securing sovereignty of biological materials.
Specimens of endemic plants collected on the Korean peninsula, which provide a basis of the characteristics and distributional information of plant species endemic to Korea, have continuously accumulated since the late Korean Empire. Unfortunately, many of these specimens were destroyed during the Korean War; thus, only a few historic specimens collected before 1950 remained in Korea. Rapid industrial development after the 1960s reduced the habitats of native plants sharply, and some species became extinct. However, information about historic specimens would provide information about the distribution and ecology of plant species in the early 20th century in Korea. After the 2000s, the high awareness of the importance of plant specimens led to the acquisition of approximately 2.5 million specimens, in particular native plants, which are now stored in approximately 20 Korean herbaria, such as the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) and the Korea National Arboretum (KNA) (Park, 2016). On the basis of this, the distributional information of native plants has become clearer, and knowledge about the identities of native species and the relationships between species has expanded. However, the Korean plant distribution in the northern part of the peninsula remains unknown. There have been several attempts to secure plant specimens from North Korea, but doing so is difficult at present.
The Koishikawa Botanical Gardens in Tokyo is an accessory institution of the Graduate School of Science of the University of Tokyo. It includes a laboratory of systematic botany, and a herbarium which houses many historic collections from Korea. Takenosin Nakai, a professor at the University of Tokyo who laid the foundation of Korean plant taxonomy, worked for the Koishikawa Botanical Gardens as its director in 1930. The specimens collected by Nakai himself from 1919 to 1940 and most specimens collected by other botanists in Korea were sent to the University of Tokyo, becoming materials for Nakai’s lifework. Many new species published by Nakai are plants endemic to Korea, with holotype specimens stored in the Herbarium of the University of Tokyo. Due to this historical background, taxonomists studying Korean plants visit the University of Tokyo examine historic specimens, including holotypes. Some specimens stored at the Herbarium of the University of Tokyo remain unidentified, including those collected before the 1940s. These undetermined historic specimens from the Korean peninsula are not only rare but also essential materials to taxonomic researchers in Korea.

Materials and Methods

We organized unidentified historic specimens from the Korean peninsula while visiting the Tokyo University Arboretum from February 25 to August 18, 2015. Korean specimens stored in zippered bags were divided according to their collection dates and locations. We created labels by determining each location’s current name using the previous names, which had been put on old specimen bundles. Various location names had been scribbled by hand, making them difficult to read. Designations of these previous names also varied. It was challenging to identify place names because, for instance, a location may have been written in Chinese characters, Japanese Kana, or they may have been given an otherwise unique Korean name written with similar Chinese characters, but with a different pronunciation. Fortunately, the time required to verify the information on the labels was greatly shortened due to the helpful advanced studies of Professor Chin-Sung Chang of Seoul National University, especially in relation to major sites such as Mt. Geumgangsan. After labeling them, the specimens were classified into family and genus and were then identified (Chung, 1956; Flora of Korea Editorial Committee, 2007; Im, 1999; Lee, T. B., 2003; Lee, W. T., 1996; Park, 1974). The identification process was accomplished by referring to identified specimens stored at the University of Tokyo.

Results and Discussion

The historic specimens of the Korean peninsula studied in this research had been stored in Hayakawa Botany Laboratory and then donated to the University of Tokyo. These specimens were collected by Saito Siroji (齊藤 四郞治; 1872–1946) in Gangwon-do, Hwanghaebuk-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Jeju-do from 1926 to 1930 (Table 1). Saito was born in the Miyagi prefecture of Japan, worked as a teacher in his hometown, and studied native plants as an amateur botanist. To devote himself to botanical studies, Saito quit teaching, left his hometown and worked for the Hayakawa Botany Laboratory in Tokyo as a professional specimen collector.
The 2,877 specimens collected from 28 locations were classified into 122 families and 659 species (Appendix). The list of specimens in the appendix is arranged by family, scientific name, Korean name and location. The number of locations is equal to the collection itinerary given in Table 1. The four major collection sites of Saito on the Korean Peninsula (Fig. 1) are as follows: Mt. Geumgangsan of Gangwon-do and surroundings, Kwanjeoksa temple of Hwanghaebuk-do and surroundings, Mt. Jirisan of Gyeongsangnam-do, and Mt. Hallasan of Jeju-do.
Site A was surveyed from Mt. Geumgangsan to Wonsan from June 26 to July 8, 1926. The names of the major collection sites were listed as Mt. Geumgangsan, Manggundae, Mahayeon, Birobong, Jangansa, Onjeong-ri, Jangjeon, Tongcheon, and Wonsan. Saussurea diamantica Nakai, Sinosenecio koreanus (Kom.) B. Nord., Dracocephalum argunense Fisch. ex Link, Pedicularis mandshurica Maxim., Lonicera okamotoana Ohwi, Vaccinium uliginosum L., Gentiana jamesii Hemsl., Triadenum japonicum (Blume) Makino, Androsace cortusifolia Nakai, Carlesia sinensis Dunn, Thuja koraiensis Nakai, and Gymnocarpium robertianum (Hoffm.) Newman were collected at Site A. We also verified 77 specimens collected in and around Pyohoonsa temple and Jeongyangsa temple from July 25–26, 1928. Therefore, it is highly likely that additional specimens still exist in other places.
Site B, in the northeast of Hwanghaebuk-do, was briefly surveyed from July 10–14, 1926. Two hundred and thirty-seven specimens, including Tanacetum vulgare L., Lappula heteracantha (Ledeb.) Guerke and Clematis serratifolia Rehder, were collected at Goksan, Kwanjeoksa temple, Gwangcheon. Saito’s collections are very important materials because only a few collected records of Hwanghaebuk-do exist. In addition, fewer than 200 specimens collected by Nakai and Uchiyama are known to exist.
Site C was the Gyeongsangnam-do area, in particular Milyangsi, which was surveyed on July 19, 1926, with Mt. Jirisan being surveyed on July 24, 1926. It appears that Saito went to Sancheong-gun to move to Mt. Jirisan from the Hwanghaebukdo area (B) through Samrang-jin of Milyang-si. Saito collected six specimens at Samrang-jin and 460 specimens on Mt. Jirisan including Saussurea diamantica Nakai and Glechoma grandis (A. Gray) Kuprian. The specimens of Saussurea diamantica Nakai collected on Mt. Jirisan contain significant distributional information because they are known to be distributed only in northern alpine regions, such as Mt. Soraksan and Mt. Bangtaesan in Gangwon-do. In contrast, Glechoma grandis (A. Gray) Kuprian is mainly distributed in North Korea but also grows on Mt. Jirisan and Mt. Mudeungsan, indicating a good possibility of finding more collections, particularly from Mt. Jirisan.
Site D was Jeju-do, including Mt. Hallasan and was surveyed from July 16 to 30, 1930. Saito collected plants on Mt. Hallasan in both directions, toward Jeju-si and Seogwipo-si. A total of 169 specimens were collected in this area, including Saussurea japonica (Thunb.) DC, Tofieldia coccinea Rich., Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) C. Presl, and Xylosma congesta (Lour.) Merr.
Saito’s collections also include cultivated plants such as Solanum tuberosum L., water plants such as Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Najas marina L., and rare plants such as Sinosenecio koreanus (Kom.) B. Nord.), Lappula heteracantha (Ledeb.) Guerke, Dracocephalum argunense Fisch. ex Link, Glechoma grandis (A. Gray) Kuprian., Pedicularis mandshurica Maxim., Lonicera okamotoana Ohwi, Vaccinium uliginosum L., Gentiana jamesii Hemsl., Triadenum japonicum (Blume) Makino, Epilobium palustre L., Androsace cortusifolia Nakai, Clematis serratifolia Rehder, Tofieldia coccinea Rich., Carlesia sinensis Dunn, Thuja koraiensis Nakai and Gymnocarpium robertianum (Hoffm.) Newman. A total of 1,050 specimens which are duplicates of these historic specimens were donated by TI and deposited in the Chonnam National University herbarium (CNU) and the herbarium of National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (KB). The valuable rare species which were donated are listed below.
  1. Androsace cortusifolia Nakai (Fig. 2–I)

    This is an indigenous species on the basis of specimens from Mt. Geumgangsan, which was named by Nakai in 1917. The characteristic appearance of 7–12 lobations on round leaves is clearly distinguished from other species in the genus. It is reported as a rare plant distributed only on Mt. Geumgangsan and Mt. Seoraksan of Gangwon-do. It is designated as a regional floristic indicator plant by the Ministry of the Environment. The specimens which were collected from Birobong peak of Mt. Geumgangsan and from Onjeong-ri of Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do were secured.
  2. Sinosenecio koreanus (Kom.) B. Nord.

    The inflorescence of this plant is similar to that of Tephroseris pseudosonchus (Vaniot) C. Jeffrey & Y. L. Chen, but it differs according to its big-lobed triangular heart-shaped leaves. It is reported as a rare plant distributed in northeastern China, in alpine regions of North Korea, on Mt. Seoraksan and Mt. Gariwangsan of Gangwon-do, Mt. Juheulsan of Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Mt. Sobaeksan and Mt. Minjoojisan of Chungcheongbuk-do. It is designated as a regional floristic indicator plant by the Ministry of the Environment. The specimens which were collected in Onjeong-ri of Goseonggun, Gangwon-do were secured.
  3. Pedicularis mandshurica Maxim. (Fig. 2–II)

    It is clearly distinguished from other species in Pedicularis by its stem lined with tiny hairs and pinnately compound leaves clustered on the lower stem. It is reported as a rare plant distributed in northeastern China, in alpine regions of North Korea, and on Mt. Seoraksan and Mt. Taebaeksan of Gangwon-do. It is designated as a regional floristic indicator plant by the Ministry of the Environment. The specimens which were collected from Birobong peak of Mt. Geumgansan in Gangwon-do were secured.
  4. Vaccinium uliginosum L.

    It is a noteworthy shrub which has small pot-like red flowers and black-purple colored fruit covered with white powder. It is distributed over a limited area at high altitude areas of Asia, in alpine cracked-stone soil of North Korea, on Mt. Seoraksan of Gangwon-do, and on the ridges of Mt. Hallasan. It is designated as a regional floristic indicator plant by the Ministry of the Environment. The specimens which were collected from Birobong (peak) of Mt. Geumgangsan, Gangwon-do were secured.
  5. Gentiana jamesii Hemsl. (Fig. 2–III)

    This species slightly resembles G. zollingeri Faw. in having its short stature and less developed rhizome, but it is distinguished from the species by its perennial cycle. It grows in northeastern China, in alpine areas of Sakhalin, on Hokkaido of Japan, and on the Gaema Plateau and alpine-zone grasslands of the Korean peninsula. It is reported as a rare plant with a limited distribution on Mt. Daeamsan of Gangwon-do, South Korea, and is designated a regional floristic indicator plant by the Ministry of the Environment. The specimens which were collected from Birobong peak of Mt. Geumgangsan, Gangwon-do, were secured.
  6. Thuja koraiensis Nakai

    This is an evergreen needle leaf tree whose specific epithet was named after Korea (korai) by Nakai in 1919. It is similar to Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco but can be distinguished by a white broad airway on the abaxial side of the leaves. It grows in northeastern China and in subalpine areas of North Korea. It is reported as a rare plant with a distribution restricted to alpine areas of Gangwon-do and is designated as a regional floristic indicator plant by the Ministry of the Environment. The specimens which were collected from Birobong peak and Jangansa temple of Mt. Geumgangsan, Gangwon-do, were secured.
  7. Saussurea diamantica Nakai

    Saussurea includes is approximately 400 species which mainly grow at high altitudes in the northern hemisphere, including the Himalayas. There are 35 species in Korea. Among these are 15 endemic species including seven species which are distributed only in alpine areas of North Korea. S. diamantica is reported as a rare plant mainly distributed in North Korea, on Mt. Seoraksan and Mt. Bantaesan of Gangwon-do, and is designated as a regional floristic indicator plant by the Ministry of the Environment. The specimens which were collected at Mahayeon and Jangansa temple of Mt. Geumgangsan, Gangwon-do, were secured.
  8. Saussurea japonica (Thunb.) DC. (Fig. 2–IV)

    Saussurea japonica (Thunb.) DC. is a biennial herb with leafy appendages at the apices of the involucre. It is similar to S. pulchella (Fisch.) Fisch. ex Colla but is distinguished by the characteristics of its involucre at flowering. The involucre of S. pulchella is a broad bell type 9–15 mm wide, while that of S. japonica is a narrow bell type 5–8 mm wide. Saussurea japonica is rarer than S. pulchella, which is rather easily observed in on mountains, in grasslands, and along forest edges. Saussurea japonica specimens stored in many herbaria are often misidentified as S. pulchella. Based on the specimens collected on Jeju-do by Taquet in 1908 (Corea, Quelpaert, in herbidis litoris Tsyeng-Tchyeng-Koan, 10 IX 1908, n 1015), the new species was published as S. taquetii Lév. et Vant. in 1910. This is referred to by several names in Korean, such as Hae-byeon-chwi, Tam-na-gaet-chwi and Seom-gaet-chwi. These synonyms were unified into S. japonica (Flora of the Korea Editorial Committee, 2007). Around Jeju-si, the population of S. japonica is observed in grasslands of seashore cliffs adjoining Yongduam Rock. This place is considered to be the place where Taquet conducted his survey in 1908 and where Saito did his in 1930. The specimens collected in 1930 around Jeju-si were secured.

Acknowledgments

This research was conducted with research support from the Chonnam National University (2014-0629). We thank Professors Jin Murata and H. Ikeda of the University of Tokyo for allowing us freely to use all of the facilities of the Koishikawa Botanical Gardens and the museum of the University of Tokyo. The very helpful information provided by Professor Chin-Sung Chang of Seoul National University concerning historic Korean place names and specimens helped make the data well organized and publishable.

Fig. 1.
A. Mt. Geumgangsan of Gangwon-do and surrounding areas. ①: Wonsan (元山), ②: Tongcheon (通天), ③: Jangjeon (長箭), ④: Onjeong-ri (溫井里), ⑤: Birobong peak (毘盧峰), ⑥: Manggundae (望軍臺), ⑦: Pyohoonsa temple (表訓寺). B. Kwanjeoksa temple of Hwanghaebuk-do and surrounding areas. ①: Kwanjeoksa temple (觀寂寺), ②: Goksan (谷山), ③: Gwangcheon (廣川). C. Mt. Jirisan of Gyeongsangnam-do. ①: Mt. Jirisan (智異山), ②: Samrangjin (三浪津). D. Mt. Hallasan of Jeju-do. ①: Jeju-si, ②: Gwaneumsa temple (觀音寺), ③: Mt. Hallasan (漢拏山), ④: Seogwipo-si (西歸浦), ⑤: Daejeong (大靜), ⑥: Seongsan (城山).
kjpt-46-1-33f1.tif
Fig. 2.
Important specimens from the Saito collection, Korean Peninsula.
kjpt-46-1-33f2.tif
Table 1.
Collection dates and locations of specimens in the Korean peninsula by Saito Siroji (齊藤四郞治)
No. Date Location
1 1926-06-26 Gangwon-do, Geumgang-gun, Naegang-ri, Jangansa temple (長安寺)– Manggundae (望軍臺)
2 1926-06-28 Gangwon-do, Geumgang-gun, Naegang-ri, Jangansa temple-Mahayeon (摩訶衍)
3 1926-06-28 Gangwon-do, Geumgang-gun, Naegang-ri, Mahayeon, Birobong peak (毘盧峰)
4 1926-07-01 Gangwon-do, Geumgang-gun, Naegang-ri, Jangansa temple
5 1926-07-02 Gangwon-do, Goseong-gun, Onjeong-ri (溫井里)
6 1926-07-03 Gangwon-do, Goseong-gun, Onjeong-ri
7 1926-07-05 Gangwon-do, Goseong-gun, Jangjeon (長箭)
8 1926-07-06 Gangwon-do, Tongcheon (通天)
9 1926-07-06 Gangwon-do, Wonsan (元山)
10 1926-07-08 Gangwon-do, Geumgang-gun, Naegang-ri, Jangansa temple - Birobong peak
11 1926-07-10 Hwanghaebuk-do, Sinpyeong-gun, Goksan, Kwanjeoksa temple (觀寂寺)
12 1926-07-11 Hwanghaebuk-do, Sinpyeong-gun, Goksan (谷山)
13 1926-07-12 Hwanghaebuk-do, Sinpyeong-gun, Goksan
14 1926-07-13 Hwanghaebuk-do, Sinpyeong-gun, Goksan, Gwangcheon (廣川)
15 1926-07-13 Hwanghaebuk-do, Sinpyeong-gun, Goksan
16 1926-07-14 Hwanghaebuk-do, Sinpyeong-gun, Goksan, Gwangcheon
17 1926-07-19 Gyeongsangnam-do, Milyang-si, Samrangjin (三浪津)
18 1926-07-24 Gyeongsangnam-do, Sancheong-gun, Mt. Jiri-san (智異山)
19 1928-07-25, 26 Gangwon-do, Geumgang-gun, Naegang-ri, Pyohoonsa temple (表訓寺)-Jeongyangsa temple (正陽寺)
20 1930-07-16 Jeju-do, Seogwipo-si (西歸浦)
21 1930-07-17 Jeju-do, Jeju-si, Ara-dong, Gwaneumsa temple (觀音寺)
22 1930-07-18 Jeju-do, Jeju-si, Ara-dong, Gwaneumsa temple
23 1930-07-20 Jeju-do, Mt. Hallasan (漢拏山)
24 1930-07-22 Jeju-do, Seogwipo-si, Seongsan (城山)
25 1930-07-23 Jeju-do, Mt. Hallasan
26 1930-07-28 Jeju-do, Seogwipo-si, Daejeong (大靜)
27 1930-07-29 Jeju-do, Seogwipo-si
28 1930-07-30 Jeju-do, Jeju-si

Literature Cited

Chung, TH. 1956. Korean flora. Sinjisa, Seoul. Pp. 721-733 (in Korean).

Flora of Korea Editorial Committee. 2007. The genera of vascular plants of Korea. Academy Publishing Co, Seoul. Pp. 982-989 (in Korean).

Im, RJ. 1999. Flora Coreana. The Science and Technology Publishing House, Pyongyang. Pp. 70-95 (in Korean).

Korea National Arboretum. 2015. English names for Korean native plants. Korea National Arboretum Pocheon (in Korean).

Lee, TB. 2003. Coloured flora of Korea. Hyangmunsa, Seoul. Pp. 279-294 (in Korean).

Lee, WT. 1996. Lineamenta florae Koreae. Academy Publishing Co, Seoul. Pp. 1179-1191 (in Korean).

Park, MK. 1974. Keys to the herbaceous plants in Korea (Dicotyledoneae). Jungumsa, Seoul. Pp. 512-517 (in Korean).

APPENDICES

Appendix.

The list of historic plant specimens collected from Korean Peninsula in the early 20th century. The numbers mean collection dates and locations of specimens in the Korean peninsula by Saito Siroji. The number are arranged in the same order as Table 1.
kjpt-46-1-33-app1.pdf
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