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Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 47(3); 2017 > Article
한반도 특산식물 목록

적 요

한반도의 특산 관속식물 목록을 새롭게 정리하기 위하여 Korea Forest Service의 358분류군과 National Institute of Biological Resources의 375분류군의 목록을 재검토하였다. 추가로 2016년까지 변종 이상의 새로운 특산분류군으로 발표된 학명들을 포함하여 목록을 정리하였다. 두 목록을 비교한 결과, 공통분류군은 289분류군, Korea Forest Service 단독 취급 분류군은 69분류군, National Institute of Biological Resources 단독 취급 분류군은 86분류군으로 이들은 총 444분류군으로 취합되었다. 이들 444분류군들에 대하여 국내 학위 논문을 포함한 학술자료 및 필요에 따라 국내 전문가들의 의견을 검토한 결과, 한반도 특산으로 인정되는 312분류군 그리고 제외되는 132분류군으로 정리되었다. 추가로 두 목록들에는 언급되지 않았으나 2016년까지 발표된 자료들을 통하여 새로이 48분류군이 특산으로 인정되어 최종적으로 64과 172속 297종 4아종 51변종 8잡종의 총 360분류군을 한반도 특산으로 정리하였다. Primula farinosa L. subsp. modesta (Bisset & S. Moore) Pax var. hannasanensis (T. Yamaz.) T. Yamaz.는 한라설앵초로 국명을 신칭하였다. 덕우기름나물속(Sillaphyton Pimenov)이 새롭게 한반도 특산속으로 추가되었으며, 그 동안 한반도 특산속으로 취급되어온 금강인가목속(Pentactina Nakai)은 특산속에서 제외되었다.

Abstract

In order to organize a new checklist for endemic vascular plants of the Korean Peninsula, 358 taxa of the Korea Forest Service and 375 taxa of the National Institute of Biological Resources were reviewed. In addition, the names of previously published endemic plants above the rank of variety were checked up to 2016. From the two lists, a total of 444 taxa were identified. Among them, 289 taxa were common on the two lists, but 69 and 86 taxa were listed only by the Korea Forest Service and by the National Institute of Biological Resources, respectively. Taxonomic documents including journal papers and dissertations were examined with regard to the 444 taxa. In some cases, opinions of Korean experts in this field were also reflected. From the results, 312 taxa in total were recognized as plants endemic to the Korean Peninsula, while 132 taxa could not be included on the endemic list. On the other hand, 48 taxa, none of which existed on the two lists, were newly listed. In conclusion, the new checklist of vascular plants endemic to Korea was confirmed, with a total of 360 taxa consisting of 64 families, 172 genera, 297 species, 4 subspecies, 51 varieties and 8 hybrids. The new common name Halla-seol-aeng-cho is given to Primula farinosa L. subsp. modesta (Bisset & S. Moore) Pax var. hannasanensis (T. Yamaz.) T. Yamaz. Sillaphyton Pimenov (Deok-u-gireum-na-mul-sok) is newly identified as a genus endemic to Korea. However, Pentactina Nakai could not be included on the list of Korean vascular endemic genera.

특산식물(또는 고유식물; endemic plants)이란 어느 한정된 지역에서만 생육하는 식물을 말하며(Anderson, 1994; Williams et al., 2002; Siljak-Yakovlev and Peruzzi 2012), 이때 한정된 지역이란 일반적으로 국가 단위로 적용하고 있는 실정이다. 최근 국제적으로 생물다양성협약(Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD)과 유전자원에 대한 접근과 이용에 따른 이익의 공정하고 공평한 공유에 관한 나고야의 정서의 발효에 따라 각국이 생물주권을 강화하고 있는 현실에서, 한반도 특산식물이 우리나라의 생물주권에서 최우선적으로 고려되어야 할 대상임은 분명하다(Paik, 1999; Oh et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2009).
한반도의 특산 관속식물은 Nakai (1952)가 1,118분류군을 처음으로 정리한 이후, 현재까지 품종을 제외하면 Lee (1984)가 387분류군, Paik (1999)이 465분류군, Kim (2004)이 340분류군, Oh et al. (2005)이 326 분류군, Korea Forest Service (KFS) (2012)가 358분류군, National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR) (2013)가 375분류군, 그리고 Park et al. (2013a)이 59분류군으로 정리하는 등 새로이 한반도 특산으로 발표되는 분류군들의 수를 감안하더라도 아직까지 학명 및 분류학적 실체에 대한 이견으로 인해 많은 혼란이 야기되고 있음은 분명하다(Kim et al., 2009).
최근 들어 국내에서 특산으로 간주되던 분류군 중 일부가 러시아, 중국, 일본 등 주변국의 관련 연구에서 새롭게 분포사실이 밝혀지거나 근연 분류군의 이명으로 처리되는 경우가 빈번하다. 그러나 이에 대한 국내학자들 중심의 재검토는 잘 이루어지지 않고 있어 한반도 특산식물들의 실체에 대한 혼란이 가중되고 있다. 그러므로 특산식물에 대한 최근의 연구경향을 반영한 새로운 목록의 제시는 무엇보다도 중요하고 또한 시급한 분류학계의 현안으로 대두되고 있으며, 이는 특산식물에 대한 국가적 주권 주장에 일조할 것이다.

재료 및 방법

본 재검토는 한반도 특산 관속식물과 관련하여 비교적 최근에 국가적 차원에서 제시된 KFS (2012)의 358분류군과 NIBR (2013)의 375분류군의 목록을 중심으로 수행되었다. 아울러 2016년까지 한반도 특산으로 새로이 발표된 모든 학명들을 대상으로 관련 학술지, 학위논문 및 도감 등의 자료들을 검토하였다. 한반도 특산식물의 선정 기준은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 분포지 관점으로 (1) 한국 특산식물은 지구상에서 한반도에만 분포하는 식물로 정의하고, (2) 한국 특산식물로 알려진 분류군에 대하여 중국, 러시아 또는 일본 등의 국외에 분포하는 사실이 학술지 등을 통하여 발표된 객관적인 자료가 있는 경우 해당 분류군에 대한 국내 전문가를 통한 검토과정을 거쳐 특산에서 제외하였다. 둘째, 분류군의 실체 관점으로 국내외 학자가 한반도산 표본을 인용하여 공식적으로 변종이상의 다른 분류군의 이명으로 분류학적 처리를 한 경우 특산식물에서 제외하였으며, 단 표본 등의 근거자료 없이 식물지 등에서 단순히 이명으로 언급된 경우 국내 전문가가 동의하지 않으면 특산으로 처리하였다. 셋째, 분류계급 관점으로 현재 품종으로 취급되는 분류군은 특산식물에서 제외하였으며, 교잡종은 포함하였다. 넷째, 명명규약 관점에서 비합법명(invalid name) 및 서명(illegitimate name)은 실체에 관계없이 특산식물에서 제외하였다.
이상의 기준들을 통하여 한반도 특산식물 목록을 양치식물, 나자식물, 피자식물의 쌍자엽식물과 단자엽식물 순으로 구성하고, 과명과 학명의 알파벳순으로 정리하였다(Appendix 1). 아울러 기존에 KFS (2012) 또는 NIBR (2013)에는 언급되었으나 본 재검토를 통해 특산에서 제외되는 분류군들은 그 사유와 함께 Appendix 2에 제시하였다.

결 과

주 검토 대상인 KFS (2012)와 NIBR (2013)의 목록을 비교한 결과, 두 목록에서 공통적으로 한반도 특산으로 인정하는 분류군은 289분류군, KFS (2012)에서만 인정하는 분류군은 69분류군, 그리고 NIBR (2013)에서만 인정하는 분류군은 86분류군으로 확인되었고, 이들은 종합하면 총 444분류군으로 정리되었다(Table 1). 이들 총 444분류군들에 대한 관련 학술자료 및 국내 전문가들의 검토의견을 기초로 할 때, 최종적으로 한반도 특산으로 인정되는 분류군은 총 312분류군으로서 여기에는 KFS (2012)와 NIBR (2013)에 공통으로 제시된 249분류군, KFS (2012)에서만 취급된 31분류군, NIBR (2013)에서만 취급된 32분류군이 해당된다(Table 1). 그 외에 양 기관의 목록에는 언급되지 않았으나, 2016년까지 한반도 특산으로 기재되거나 언급된 분류군들 중에서 48분류군이 특산으로 인정되어 본 재검토에서 한반도 특산 관속식물은 총 64과 172속 297종 4아종 51변종 8잡종의 360분류군으로 정리되었다(Table 1).
KFS (2012)와 NIBR (2013)에서 특산으로 취급되었으나 본 연구 결과 특산에서 제외된 분류군은 총 132분류군으로, 두 목록 공통 40분류군, KFS (2012) 단독 취급 38분류군, NIBR (2013) 단독 취급 54분류군이다. 이들을 주요 제외 사유별로 구분하면 (1) 이명처리 되었거나 개체 변이로 추정되어 이명가능성이 있는 95분류군, (2) 주변국 분포사실 확인 25분류군, (3) 품종으로 취급되는 3분류군, (4) 학명표기 오류 및 비합법명 또는 서명 8분류군, 그리고 (5) 학명출처 불확실 1분류군이다(Appendix 2).

고 찰

본 연구 결과 한반도 특산으로 제시된 360분류군 중 몇 가지 특이사항은 다음과 같다. 장수만리화의 경우 KFS (2012)에서는 1942년 발표된 Forsythia velutina Nakai를 학명으로 정리하고 있으나, NIBR (2013)은 Lee (1966)Rangium nakaii Uyeki를 Forsythia Vahl로 조합한 F. nakaii (Uyeki) T. B. Lee를 정명으로 제시하고 있다. 이와 관련하여 De Juana Clavero (2016)Rangium Juss.가 Forsythia의 이명으로 처리되었기 때문에 1940년 발표된 R. nakaii가 종 계급에서 선취권이 인정되어 F. nakaii를 장수만리화의 정명으로 사용해야 한다고 하였으며, 이는 조류, 균류와 식물에 대한 국제명명규약 (International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants, ICN)의 11조 4항에 따른 것이다. 따라서 본 목록에서는 장수만리화의 정명을 F. nakaii로 하였다. 제주도 및 내륙에 자생하는 것으로 알려졌던 설앵초의 경우 두 목록에서 모두 Primula modesta Bisset & S. Moore var. hannasanensis T. Yamaz.를 정명으로 특산으로 처리하고 있다. 그러나 Yamazaki (2003)는 제주도 외에 경상남도 내륙에서 설앵초로 동정되는 집단을 P. farinosa L. subsp. modesta (Bisset & S. Moore) Pax var. koreana T. Yamaz.로 신변종 처리하였다. 따라서 P. farinosa subsp. modesta var. koreana를 설앵초의 학명으로 제시하고, 제주도에 분포하는 P. farinosa L. subsp. modesta (Bisset & S. Moore) Pax var. hannasanensis (T. Yamaz.) T. Yamaz.는 한라설앵초로 새로운 국명을 부여하였다.
특산에서 제외된 132분류군 중 긴괭이싸리[Lespedeza pilosa (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc var. pedunculata T. B. Lee]와 진보라붓꽃(Iris sanguinea Donn ex Hornem. var. violacea Makino)은 해당 분류군 국내 전문가만의 의견을 참고하여 근연종의 개체 변이로 판단되어 제외하였다. 주변국 분포 사실 확인된 25분류군의 경우, 중국에서 확인된 것이 20건으로 가장 많았고 일본이 10건, 러시아 5건, 몽골과 북아메리카가 각각 1건이었다. NIBR (2013)에서 한라세모부추의 학명으로 제시한 Allium taquetii H. Lév. var. deltoides (S. Yu, S. Lee & W. Lee) H. J. Choi & B. U. Oh는 Oh (2007b)의 학명표기 오류가 반영된 것으로 확인되었다. 금강고사리[Dryopteris austriaca (Jacq.) Woyn. ex Schinz & Thell. var. subopposita H. Ito]는 현재까지 학명의 출처를 확인할 수 없기에 제외하였다.
새롭게 한반도 특산속으로 추가된 것은 덕우기름나물속(Sillaphyton Pimenov)이다. 최근에 Pimenov et al. (2016)은 S. podagraria (H. Boissieu) Pimenov ( ≡ Peucedanum podagraria H. Boissieu)을 기준으로 본 속을 신설하며 한반도 특산으로 제시하였다. 반면 한반도 특산 속으로 취급되어온 금강인가목속(Pentactina Nakai)은 Yakubov (2014)에 의해 러시아 극동지역에 분포하는 Spiraea schlothauerae Ignatov & Worosch이 P. schlothauerae (Ignatov & Worosch.) V. Yakubov로 소속을 변경함으로 특산 속에서 제외하여야 할 것으로 판단된다. 결과적으로 한반도 특산속은 미선나무속(Abeliophyllum Nakai), 매미꽃속(Coreanomecon Nakai), 금강초롱꽃속(Hanabusaya Nakai), 제주고사리삼속(Mankyua B.-Y. Sun, M. H. Kim & C. H. Kim) 및 모데미풀속(Megaleranthis Ohwi)을 포함하여 총 6속으로 정리되었다.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Korea Forest Service in 2015 as a policy research project to the Korean Society of Plant Taxonomists. We thank the following researchers for their cooperation with taxonomic opinions: Cho, Won Bum (Pedicularis), Choi, Byoung-Hee (Fabaceae), Choi, Kyung (Pseudostellaria), Chung, Kyong-Sook (Carex), Heo, KyeongIn (Potentilla), Jang, Chang-Gee (Polygonatum), Jang, HyunDo (Scrophularia), Jeong, Keum Seon (Galium) Im, HyoungTak (Saussurea), Kang, Shin-Ho (Chrysosplenium), Kim, JooWhan (Euonymus), Kim, Sangtae (Elsholtzia, Scutellaria), Kim, Yoon-Young (Brassicaceae), Kim, Young-Dong (Chrysosplenium, Berberis), Ko, Sung Chul (Arisaema, Clematis), Lee, Chang Shook (Pteridophytes), Lee, Heung Su (Fraxinus), Lee, Jung Hyun (Quercus), Oh, Byoung-Un (Asarum, Corydalis, Impatiens), Park, Ki-Ryong (Euphorbia, Orostachys, Sedum), Park, SeonJoo (Thalictrum, Geranium), Park, SeongJun (Thalictrum), Park, Wan-Geun (Salix), Sim, Jeong-Ki (Iris), Yanng, Ji Young (Rubus), Lee, Ro-Young (Rubus), Yang, Jong-Cheol (Gymnosperms), Yoo, Ki-Oug (Adenophora, Viola), Yoon, Chang-Young (Angelica).

Table 1.
Summary and comparison between the present and previous studies of KFS (2012) and NIBR (2013).
No. of taxa Previous study
Present study
KFS (2012) NIBR (2013) KFS (2012) NIBR (2013) Newly added Total
Shared 289 249
Exclusive 69 86 31 32
Subtotal 358 375 280 281
Total 444 312 48 360

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APPENDICES

Appendix 1.

Checklist of Korean endemic vascular plants.

kjpt-47-3-264-app1.pdf
Appendix 2.

List of excluded taxa from KFS (2012) and NIBR (2013).

kjpt-47-3-264-app2.pdf
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